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The Application of Role Play as a Technique in teaching Speaking

ABSTRACT

Salsabilatul Jannah 2011.”The Application of Role Play as a Technique in teaching Speaking”

Key Word: role play, a technique, teaching speaking

English become the most essential language in the world. Almost all the people from many different countries around the world use it to communicate.

Role play is very important in teaching speaking because it gives students in opportunity to practice communicating in different social context and in different social roles. It also allows students to be creative and to put themselves in another person’s for a while.

Gillian Potter Ladousse illustrated that when students assume a ‘Role’, they plat apart (either their own or somebody else’s) in specific situation. ’Play’ means that is taken on in safe  environment in which students are as an inventive and playful as possible.

In learning speaking skill, the student often found some problems. The problem frequently found is that their native language causes them difficult to use the foreign language. They are also too shy and afraid to take part in the conversation. Many techniques can be applied including role play because many research finding say that this technique is effective to use in teaching speaking.

For these reason, the researcher is interested in analyzing the use of the role play in teaching speaking and also wants to know the advantages and the problems encountered by learners and teachers in using it.

 

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

 

A.    Background of study

English become the most essential language in the world. Almost all the people from many countries around the world use it to communicate.

In the international relationship, English speaking ability is very important to be able to participate in the wider world of work. The speaking skill is measured in terms of the ability to carry out a conversation in the language. This reality makes teachers and parents think that speaking ability should be mastered by their students and children.

In recent years, English language teaching has focused on teach the English language rather than teach about the English language. The emphasis is not only on linguistics competence of the language learners but also on the development of their communicative ability.

In learning speaking skill, the student often found some problems. The problem frequently found is that their native language causes them difficult to use the foreign language. They are also too shy and afraid to take part in the conversation. Many techniques can be applied including role play because many research finding say that this technique is effective to use in teaching speaking.

Role play is very important in teaching speaking because it gives students in opportunity to practice communicating in different social context and in different social roles. It also allows students to be creative and to put themselves in another person’s for a while.

B.     Identification, limitation and Formulation of Problem

1.      Identification of Problem

There are many problems of language teaching that can be identified as research subject. In this case, the writer would like to discuss about:

  • What is speaking?
  • What is role play?
  • What are the problems encountered by students in practicing speaking?

2.      Limitation of Problem

To clarify the problem, the writer limits those problems in the use of role play activities in teaching speaking, the basic concept of speaking, some types and procedures in using role play.

3.      Formulation of Problem

Are the scores of speaking taught by using role play better or not?

C.     Objective of The Study

From the previous discussion in the background of study, the writer finds out that using role play in teaching speaking is quite effective. Therefore, the writer would like to prove, whether the scores of speaking taught by using role play better on not.

D.    Method of Study

The method that is used in this study is quantitative method. The study is based on both library and field research. In the field research, the writer collected the data by teaching and observing the subjects.

 CHAPTER II

THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK

 

1)      Speaking

  • Definition of speaking

According to Chaney, speaking is “the process of building and sharing meaning through the use of verbal and non-verbal symbols, in a variety of contexts.

  • How to teach speaking?

 When teaching young learners we constantly have to keep in mind the fact that what we have in front of us is a mixed class with varied abilities, expectation, motivation level, knowledge and last but not least, different learning styles.

 Teaching English in Indonesian student to be able to speak, read, and  understand text books written in English language taken an important role in human’s life. In English lesson at school that is very important. There are some techniques in teaching English especially in speaking, but there are only a few teachers who can carry out the teaching successfully.

The technique of teaching speaking skill is communicative efficiency. Learners should be able to make themselves understood, using their current proficiency to the fullest.

In teaching speaking, students often think that the ability to speak a language is the product of language is the product of language learning. But, speaking is also crucial part of the language and learning process.

Most of students say that English is very important for their life. But they also believe that learning it is something hard to do. Students who learn new foreign language still communicate and receive knowledge in their mother tongue.  English teacher have to find the way to motivate and to make them interested in learning English.

Based on the article which is from (NCLRC http://www.nclrc.org/essential/speaking/developspeak.htm), there are many techniques in teaching speaking process; they are drilling, dialogue, retelling, information gap, jigsaw, role play and discussion.

 2)      Role play

  • Definition of role play

In Cambridge International Dictionary of English, role defined as the person whom an actor represent in a film or play, while role play is a method of acting out particular ways of behaving or pretending to be other people who deal with new situation. It is used in training courses language learning and psychotherapy.

In role play, students are assigned roles and put into situations that they may eventually encounter outside the classroom. Because role play is imitated life, the range of language function that may be used expands considerably.

The aim of using role play in teaching speaking is to make students encourage thinking and creativity, let students develop and practice new language and behavioral skills in a relatively non-threatening setting, and can create the motivation and involvement necessary for learning to occur.

  • Types and procedure in using Role Play

In case of role play activities, according to Don Byrne, role play can be grouped into two forms, scripted and unscripted role play. In details, those types of role play activities described as follows:

a)      Scripted Role Play

This type involves interpreting either the text book dialogue or reading text in the form of speech. The main function of the text after all is to convey the meaning of language items in a memorably way.

b)      Unscripted Role Play

In contrast of scripted role play, the situations of unscripted role play do not depend on textbooks. It is known as a free role play or improvisation. The students themselves have to decide what language to use and how the conversation should develop. In order to do this activity, good preparation from teacher and students is really necessary.

Student usually found the role playing enjoyable. But, students who lack-confidence or have a lower proficiency levels may find them intimidating at first. In the article (NCLRC http://www.nclrc.org/essential/speaking/developspeak.htm ) to succeed with role plays prepare carefully.

Introduce the activity by describe the situation and making sure that all of the students understand it.

a.       Set a goal our out come

Be sure that students understand what the product of the role play, through a plan, a schedule, a group opinion, and some other product.

b.      Use role card

Give each student a card that describes the person or role to be played for lower level -student, the cards can include words expression that might be use.

c.       Brainstorming

Before you start the role play have students brainstorm as a class to predict what vocabulary, grammar and idiomatic expressions they might use.

d.      Keep small group

Less-confidence students will feel more able to participate if they do not have to compete with many voices.

e.       Give students time to prepare

Let them word individually to outline their ideas and the language will need to expression them.

Be present as resource, not a monitor, stay in communicative made to answer student’s question. Do not their pronunciation of grammar unless they specifically ask about.

f.        Allow student has individual language skill; an individual approach to working in groups and a specific role to play in the activity. Do not expect all students to contribute equally to the discussion or to use every grammar point teacher have thought.

g.       Do tropical follow up

Have students report to the class on the outcome that they role plays.

h.       Do linguistics follow up

After the role play is over, give feedback on grammar or pronunciation problems have heard.

 CHAPTER III

RESEARCHE METODOLOGY

 

                               I.            Objective of Study

The objective of the study is to know whether the scores of speaking taught by using role play better or not by comparing the students’ score before and after being taught by using role play technique.

                            II.            Place and Time of the Study

This research was taken in Islamic Junior School WALISONGO at Jl. Bulu  No. 22 A Bader, Jatirogo, Tuban, on April 15 to July 11 2011.

                         III.            Research Method

In this research, the writer used pre-experiment method by using “one group pre-test and post-test design,” where the writer did an experiment in a single group only.

                         IV.            Population and Sampling

The population of this research is the students of seventh grade in Islamic Junior High School (MTs) WALISONGO Jatirogo – Tuban. There is a class in this grade and the amount of students is 36.

                            V.            Instrumentation

To know the effectiveness of teaching speaking by using role play, the writer gives oral test to the student. Because the test is oral test, the writer divided the score into five criteria, which are the scores of pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, fluency and comprehension. Each criteria, then, is rated into five scale of rating scores.

After that, to get the mean, the scores from all criteria are sum and divided into five. The pre-test had been given before the treatment was given. Moreover, the post-test was given after he had given the treatment t the class.

                         VI.            Procedure of data collection

One important thing in this research is to collect the data that can determine the result of the research. The procedures of data collection used in this research are:

Ø      Greeting

On this occasion, teacher greets and asks about the students’ condition. The teacher also reviews their previous lesson. After that the teacher tells the students what they are going to learn or to do on that day.

Ø      Pre-Test

The pre-test is in oral test form. The test contains of 10 questions. The scores are taken in five criteria.

Ø      Presentation Stage

In the presentation stage, the teacher assigns role to the students and divides them into three groups. Then, the teacher explains their roles, the situation that the students have to do in the role play and the goal or outcome that they have to get.

In this stage was used discourse method that is submitting information or description concerning with the root of matter verbally.

Ø      Practice Stage

In this stage, the teacher asks the students to begin the role play while she goes around the class checking and giving help as the students needed.

In this stage used experiment method. It was used to make the students able to communicate with others by using their own language based on the cues that had been given by the teacher before.

Ø      Production stage

In this stage, the teacher asks the students about the outcome of their role play. Next, the teacher gives feedback on grammar or pronunciation problems that she heard. The method that was used in this final stage is dialogue method. It was used to know the students’ speaking ability and their understanding concerned with the subject.

Ø      Post Test

The post-test is given after the treatment had been done by teaching speaking using role play .The scores are taken in five criteria.

Ø      Closure

In this final stage, the teacher concludes the lesson on that day. The teacher also has to find out the students’ response according to the role play that they have done and closes the lesson by saying “hamdalah” together.

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