A Study of Psychological Conflict Underground by Joseph Conrad As The Main Character In Marlow ‘s Decision.

ABSTRACT

Yofi , Aninda . 2008, B, A Study of Psychological Conflict Underground by Joseph Conrad As The Main Character In Marlow ‘s Decision.

Key Words                 :Marlow, Heart of Darkness , Pyschological conflict, Joseph Conrad.

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 Marlow’s Decision and Message in Joseph Conrad

 

Literature is the reflection of the whole real things in the world and converse all the activities in all kinds of life with all aspects in it .And it is simply broadest sense literature includes all written materials such as history book , philosophical works , scientific articles , dictionaries , magazines , school text books , novels , short stories , poems , play , and travel brochures .

Novel is a long story written in prose which illustrated figures representative motion and act of the real life in form a complicated condition . Someone will gets a lost of information about the life by reading a novel . ‘Joseph Conrad ‘   Novel “Heart of Darkness & The secret Sharer “  will be analyzed by the writer . Smartness and messsages of this Novel was analyzed through Marlow as the main character .

Descriptive research is used in this study . An objective approaches used to gain the purpose of the study . Population is the whole events which are presented  by Joseph Conrad in the novel . While the data of this study are participants and dialogues which indicate possible information dealing with this problem .

Through Marlow as the main character, Joseph Conrad present that Marlow is a Young man who decides that it would be exiting to travel into Africa hunting ivory and does so by taking the place of a dead steamboat captain.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1  Background of The Study

 

As social being, indeed literature is extremely familiar to human being, it is existence has an aim at completing one’s pleasure and one’s knowledge as well, So reading literature sometime is regarded  as an important activity.

Literature is very important for the student especially of English human knowledge . Literature is one of compulsory subjects , which has to be taken by all English student . Reading   literature work give something more than enjoyment and pleasure .There are many kinds of definition of literature , Graham little  ( 1966 : 2 ) in this approaches said that literature says something work saying and something well said . Literary work divides into  four kinds: drama , novel , poetry , and short story .Novel is one of the most interesting and popular genre of literature . Novel is a pert of interesting work that has length form . It is can store all of aspects of life .

A novel use the some elements a short story , they are plot, characterization , situation  and theme. From these four elements the writer would like to analyze Psychological Conflicts Underground Marlow by Joseph Conrad .

Heart of Darkness & The Secret Sharer , which was written has focused on the study psychological conflict underground Marlow .

The story tells of a powerful European . Kurtz, Who reverts to awful savagery in an isolated native trading post .

 

1.2  The Reason of Choosing The Topic

 

1st              : Psychological conflict are  one of the interesting part in this story .

2nd                        : To know more details about this story especially psychological conflict .

 

 

1.3  Statement of The Problem

 

Conflict may happen to everyone , either male  or female , young  or  old . It happens  to human being in daily life at the reflection of their genuine characters. One can to avoid any conflicts because as social beings, one must make contact with on other in his or her community . Furthermore ,conflict are avoidable since the society itself consist of various persons having different personality .

As  the central of interest of the story as stated in the novel “Heart of Darkness & The Secret Sharer,   tells of a powerful European . Kurtz, Who reverts to awful savagery in an isolated native trading post .

From the  several reson above , the writer in writing  “ Skripsi  “ will be interested to analyze

:

1 . What is the psychological conflict ?

2. Does Marlow succeed on his decision ?

 

 

1.4  Purpose of The Study

 

Meanwhile the main purpose of this “ Skripsi ” is to find out

 

1        . The psychological conflict  of Marlow.

2        . Whether Marlow succeed in reaching her goal or not ?

 

1.5  The scope of Limitation

 

The writer wants to limit and emphasize that the discussion of this skripsi in chiefly on the main character Marlow it will be focused only on the psychological conflict underground Marlow by Josep Conrad .

 

Definition of The Key Terms

 

  1. Marlow                  : The main character of this story.
  2. Psychological confilct        : Is when you want to do something but your own feelings      toward that certain things that you want to do get the in the way .( au.answer. yahoo.com/question/index.)
  3. Heart of Darkness& The secret Sharer : Title of Novel
  4. Joseph Conrad       : The Author of the  Novel.

 

1.6  Method of The Study

 

The data  and the information supporting this  “Skripsi “are taken from great member of sources and references .Descriptive research is used in this study . An objective approaches used to gain the purpose of the study . Population is the whole events which are presented  by Joseph Conrad in the novel . While the data of this study are participants and dialogues which indicate possible information dealing with this problem.

 

 

1.7  The Organization of  The Study

 

Chapter 1   :Deals the introduction

Chapter 2   : Author’s Biography and Synopsis of The Novel .

Chapter 3   : Review of Related Literature.

Chapter 4   : The Writer Analyze According to  The Problem of The Study.

Chapter 5   : Conclusion .

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 2

 

AUTHOR BIOGRAPHY AND SYNOPSIS OF THE NOVEL

 

2.1 The Biography of  Joseph Conrad

Joseph Conrad ( born Jozef Toodor Konrad Korzenioowski 3 December 1857-3 August 1924 ) was a Polish –born English novelist.

Conrad is regarded as one of the greatest novelist in English ,though he did not speak the language fluently until he was in twenties ( and then always with a marked Polish accent ).He wrote stories and novels predominantly with a nautical or seaboard setting that depict trials of the human spirit by demands of duty and honor .

Conrad was a master prose stylist who  brought a distinctly non – English tragic sensibility into English literature .While some of his works have a strain of romanticism ,he is viewed as a precursor of modernist literature .His narrative style and anti- heroic characters have influenced many authors .

Films have been adapted from or inspired by Conrad ‘s Victory ,Lord Jim , The secret Agent , An Outcast of The Islands, The Rover ,The Shadow  Line , The Duel , Heart of Darkness , Nostromo  , and Almayer’s  Folly. Writing in the heyday of the British Empire , Conrad drew upon his experiences in the French and later The British Merchant Navy to create short stories and novels that reflect aspects of a worldwide empire while also plumbing the depths of the human soul.

 

2.2 Synopsis of “ Heart of Darkness & The Secret  Sharer

The story opens with an unnamed narrator describing five men , apparently colleagues ,on a boat anchoredon The River Thames and the surrounding as dusk settles in and they await  the turning of the tide .The narrator cites a passenger  known as Charlie Marlow , the only one of the man who “ still followed the sea “ Marlow makes a comment about London having been “one of the dark places on earth “,thus begins the story of Marlow and a job he took as captain of a steamship in Africa.

The Roi des  Belges, the Belgian riverboat Conrad commanded on the upper Congo ,1889 .He begins by ruminating on how Britain’s image among Ancient Roman officials must have been similar to Africa’s image among 19th century British officials .He describes how is “ dear aunt “ used many of her contacts to secure the job for him, calling him an “ emissary of light “.When he arrives at the job , he encounters many men he dislikes as they strike him as untrustworthy. They speak often of a man named Kurtz, who has quite a reputation in many areas of expertise .He is somewhat of a rogue ivory collector , essentially a great musician , a journalist, a skilled painter and s universal genius.

Marlow arrives at the Central Station run by the Manager, an unwholesome conspiratorial character .He finds his steamship has been sunk and suspects the Manager of causing the accident , then spends three months waiting for parts to repair it .There is rumor regarding Kurtz being ill , this makes the delays in repairing the ship all the more costly. Marlow gets the parts and he and the manager set out with a few agents and a crew of cannibals on a long , difficult voyage up the river .

Old Belgian river station on the Congo River , 1889 Marlow and the crew discover a hut with stacked firewood together with a note saying that the wood is for them but that they should approach cautiously. Shortly after the steamer has  taken on the firewood old it is surrounded by a dense fog . When the fog clears , the ship is attacked by an unseen band of natives , who shoot arrows from the safety of the forest , killing one of crew. When they later reach Kurtz’s station , they are met by a guileless Russian trader , the Harlequin , who assures them that everything is fine and informs them that he is the one who left the wood and the note . They find that Kurtz has persuaded the natives to treat him as a god, and led brutal  raids in the surrounding territory in search  of ivory .

Marlow and his crew take the ailing Kurtz aboard their ship and depart . Kurtz is lodged in Marlow’s pilothouse and Marlow finds himself disappointed with Kurtz’s childish schemes for fame and fortune . During this time , Kurtz gives Marlow a collection of papers and a photograph for safekeeping , as both had witnessed the Manager going through Kurtz’s belongings. The photograph is of a beautiful woman whom Marlow assumes is Kurtz ‘s love interest or as Marlow calls her “ his intended “.

One night Marlow happens upon Kurtz, obviously near death .As Marlow come closer with a candle , Kurtz seems to experience a supreme moment of complete knowledge and speaks his last words: “ The horror ! The horror! “ Marlow believes this to be Kurtz’s reflection on the events of his life . Marlow does not inform the Manager or any of the voyagers of Kurtz death , the news is instead broken by the Manager ‘s child – servant.

Marlow later returns to his home city and is confronted by many people  seeking things and ideas of Kurtz. Marlow meets Kurtz’s death , Marlow tells her that his last words were “ your name “, and not “ the horror! The horror!”

The story concludes back on the boat on the Thames , with a description of how the river seemed to lead into the heart of an immense darkness.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 3

 

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATUTE

In relation to the title of “ SKRIPSI” as study of psychological conflicts underground by Marlow in Heart of Darkness & The secret Sharer” it is very necessary to define the meaning of certain term above they are “ novel” sttudy “ psychological “ ,” conflict “ . This has intention to obtain a clear guide for understanding the content of Skripsi , because the terms basically are the most important thoughts in  coming in this discussion . In defining and also exploring the term . It will use some dictionaries and some expert, opinion in literature as reference . That will be concluded by combining all of the statements as accurately as possible . As much it will be found a unity of clear complete meaning of each term .

 

3.1             Literature

 

Is simply another way we can experience the world around us through our imagination , ( Ali Fauzi ,1996 : 2). According to Jacob Sumajo and Saini K.M.in thier book “ Apresiasi Kesusasteraan “, Literature is expressing human personal which sorts of experience , thinking, feeling, idea , enthusiasm .( 1988 : 2) mentioned two kinds of literature .There are informative literature and imaginative literature .I nformative literature presents or interprets the factual information explanation , or scientific process  as was on political issues .Imaginative literature interprets experience by fictions presentation of persons, ideas , and events.

 

3.2 The Definition of The Novel

 

Novel is result of the story of the author imagines , not real events . Novel is on illusion story but it is written according to real life.

 

3.3 The elements of The Novel

 

They include plot, character, settings,of view , style snd tone ,form and technique , and theme ( 1966:8-19 William Kenney ) .

 

      3.3.1  Plot

 

Is the sequence of events or incidents of which story is composed. The term of plot can be mentioned in the beginning ,in teh middle , and end .

 

      3.3.2    Character- Characteristic-characterization

 

Here will be discussed character , characteristic, characterization based on literary theory.

 

3.3.2.1 Character

Is the person in dramatic or narrative work , endoved with moral and disposition qualifies that are expressed in what they say the dialogue , and what they do, the action ( M.H . Abraham , 1971 : 21 ). There are character namely : major and minor characters.

 

 

3.3.2.1 Characteristic

 

Means a person is behaviour .

 

3.3.2.2  Characterization

 

Is the author’s way in giving  characteristic to the characters. They are 2 term of characterization they are direct and indirect characterization.

 

3.3.3  Setting

 

Is the elements  of fiction which reveals to the readers where and when the events happen.

 

3.3.4 Point of View

 

Herman J.Waluyo ( 1984 :183-184 ) explains that the part of views is how the author takes a part , directly involves him self in story as first person or  as an observer who stand out of the characters as the characters as third person .

There are 4 kinds of point of view. They are first person point of view, third  person point of view ,dramatic person point of view , omniscient  point of view .( Jones , 1968 : 29 )

 

3.4                         The Definition of The study

 

In conclude Indonesia dictionary , ( 1) study , research  & scientific , ( 2) Lesson  ( Bodudu- Zaini 1996 : 1358 ).

 

3.5             The Definition of The Psychology

 

C.P Chaplin in (Complete Dictionary Psychology ) describe that “ Psychology as a science is scientific a certain kind knowkledge about attitude people and annual that empty into in the heart that appear in the environment  ( 1995b: 398)

 

3.6 The Definition of Conflict

 

As stated before that conflict is the meeting two opposite thesis or elements or characteristic and its result .

In Jones divides three categories of conflict ( 1) the psysical elemental conflict : conflict between man and nature  ( 2) social conflict : conflict of man against another and (3) psychological / internal conflict  ( Jones , 1986 : 30 ) Which psychological Conflict will arise if the character is struggling against himself , against his science , his question , or simply to decide what is going to do .

 

By              Aninda Yofi Intan S.

NPM          1106080044

 

 

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ABSTRACT

 

Asih Widya.A. 2011. An Analysis of Jonathan’s Struggle as the Main Character in Bram Stoker’s Novel “ Dracula”.

Skripsi, English Department, Unirow Tuban, Advisor : Dr. Tri Budi Susatyo

Literary is simply another way we can experience the world us through out imagination. Literature is this broadest sense maybe classified into two. First, literature of knowledge of informative literature. Its function is to present information, to teach and to offer knowledge. The examples are history books, scientific articles, dictionary, etc. secondly, literature of power or imaginative literature. Its function is to entertain, to move, to arouse thought and feelings. The examples are novels, short stories, poems, plays ,etc.

A novel is a part of literary works that has length form is able to store all aspects of life that is written in prose.

The purpose of the study is to find out the answer of statement problems: what Jonathan’s Struggle is, what the cause of   Jonathan’s Struggle success is, and finally how the end of  Jonathan’s Struggle is.

The study uses descriptive qualitative research design. It means that does not use numbers or calculation to process the data but put on the quotation taken from the novel and describes them in order to give clear explanation and support her assumption.

The result of the research can be concluded as follows: first, what Jonathan’s Struggle is. Jonathan’s Struggle is to fight and hunt the strongest vampire, Count Dracula. Secondly, the cause of   Jonathan’s Struggle success is. Jonathan is helped by their two friends, Arthur and Professor Van Helsing in fighting Dracula. Finally, at the end of his struggle. Jonathan can find Dracula who not in moving situation in his box with his friends helping. So, he can kill Dracula. In the end, Dracula was died. And they and many people life in fearless.

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

 

As social beings, we like telling people about things that happen to us and we like to hear of things that happen to the other people. From description above, we can say that literature is simply another way we can experience the world us through out imagination. So for application of it, Braham Little (1996) divides literary works into four kinds., drama, novel, poetry and short story. The writer will discuss novel “ DRACULA” written by Bram Stoker. The writer discuss Jonathan’s struggle as a main character of novel. But before that, it is necessary to know a little about novel. Novel is a part of literary works that has length form is able to store all aspect of life that is written in prose.

At last, the writer is interested in analyzing the main character of  Bram Stoker’s novel “ Dracula” because it has not been discussed yet. When the writer was introduced to literature, she began to think that within literature lies a great lesson to learn, studying the major course, that is linguistic learn and language skills. The writer wants to discuss  Jonathan’s struggle as a main character of novel with the hope that she may get some experience of life and know how much important the struggle is. So in this point, she choose the title an Analysis of Jonathan’s Struggle as a Main Character in Bram Stoker’s “Dracula” as the topic of this discussion.

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

 

Nowadays, we often meet some problems of human life. The problems between one person and another’s difference because it is influenced by background of life. The writer explains the problem that is related with  Jonathan’s struggle. Before the writer write the title an Analysis of Jonathan’s Struggle as a Main Character in Bram Stoker’s “Dracula”, she presents the following questions.

  1. what is characterization of the main character in the novel?
  2. what is Jonathan’s struggle?
  3. what is the cause Jonathan’s struggle success?
  4. how is the end of  Jonathan’s struggle?

1.3   OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

 

Based of the problems above, the objectives of the study are as follows:

  1. the writer wants to know the characterization of the main character in the novel.
  2. the writer wants to know Jonathan’s struggle
  3. the writer wants to find the cause Jonathan’s struggle success.
  4. the writer wants to find the end of  Jonathan’s struggle.

1.4   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

 

By discussing this topic, the writer wants to have great knowledge of literature and know more experience of life through finding Jonathan’s struggle as a main character. The readers will be able to add their knowledge, to get amusement, and also know how much important the struggle in the life. So that, it enables them to deepen the awareness of life.

1.5   LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

 

The study focuses on the discussion onto   Jonathan’s struggle as a main character through the analysis of all subject matter but it does not mean that the other elements are not involved in this discussion. Therefore, the writer choose the title an Analysis of Jonathan’s Struggle as a Main Character in Bram Stoker’s “Dracula” to be analyzed.

1.6          DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS

Before discussing about the skripsi further, it is necessary for the writer to define key term related with the title of the skripsi

1.6.1          Analysis is The separation of a substance into its constituent elements, usually by chemical means, for the study and identification of each component. ( The American Heritage)

1.6.2          Characterization is the depicting of clear image of a person ( William Kenney. 1966:94)

1.6.3          Main character is the character who play the most important role in the play ( Jacob Sumardjo and Saini KM.1988:144)

1.6.4          Struggle is To strive, or to make efforts, with a twisting, or with contortions of the body. (Abraham Lincoln)

1.6.5          Dracula is a novel written by Bram Stoker

1.7          RESEARCH METHOD

According to A.S. Hornby  is this book “ the Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English, methodology is divided from the word “method” meaning the way of doing something. And logos/logic is research. So, Methodology is the way of doing research done by the researcher (1974:533).

1.7.1      Research Design

The writer tries to do through library research. It belongs to qualitative research. It means that it is the analysis of text of literary work without using number and calculation to process the data.

1.7.2      Source of Data and Research Data

Source of Data in this study is a novel “Dracula’. The writer’s research data is Jonathan’s Struggle as a main character found in “Dracula” written by Bram Stoker.

1.7.3      Procedure of Collecting and Analyzing Data

After the novel and data were collected, the writer analyzes them through the way of the content analysis is a procedure for categorization of data, for the purpose of classification and referring to the writer problems. The process of collecting and analyzing data by the writer can be described as follow: after then she identifies the data by giving symbol for each problem which is found in the novel. The writer also groups the data based on the problem. In the last, she describes the data and summarizes the findings.

CHAPTER 2

2.1           Biography of  Bram Stoker ( 1847-1912)

Writer of one of the world’s most famous horror novels, Abraham Stoker was born to the loosely defined socio-cultural group known as the Anglo-Irish. A Protestant Dubliner, he was the son of a civil servant, and he was expected to follow in his father’s footsteps. As a child, Abraham Stoker was a sickly child often on the point of death? by his own account, he never stood upright without aid until he was seven years old. But he grew into a physically robust youth, excelling in athletics during his college years. At Trinity College, he studied mathematics and became president of the Philosophical Society and the Historical Society.

In the years between 1870 and 1877, he was a civil servant at Dublin Castle. He maintained ties to Trinity College, returning there frequently to speak on a wide range of topics for the Philosophical Society. He was deeply interested in the Romantic poets, and during these years he established a correspondence with Walt Whitman. The two men exchanged letters until Whitman’s death. Stoker also became an enthusiastic theatergoer and an ardent admirer and friend of Henry Irving, writing dramatic criticism and glowing reviews of Irving’s work for the local papers. Many have argued that Henry Irving was an important model for the character of Count Dracula, and that the novel was a kind of unconscious revenge against the man to whom Stoker gave so much. During these years, Stoker’s position in the Historical Society at Trinity put him in contact with Dublin’s elite. He became a regular guest of Sir William and Lady Wilde, the parents of Oscar Wilde, and was drawn into Lady Wilde’s literary and artistic circle of friends. He competed with Oscar Wilde for the hand of Florence Balcombe, a beautiful young woman who was the daughter of a lieutenant-colonel. Florence chose Bram, and the two were married in 1878, the same year he left for London and a new job as the business manager of Henry Irving’s Lyceum Theater. That same year, he wrote The Duties of Clerks of Petty Sessions in Ireland, drawn from his experience as a civil servant. Stoker continued to work faithfully and tirelessly for Henry Irving until the actor’s death in 1906.

The many years with Henry Irving were full of hard work and sacrifice, as Stoker frequently put his work before his family. His only child, Noel, was born in 1879. Noel later felt that Stoker’s work for Irving wore out the devoted younger man. There was constant touring and promotional work to be done, throughout the British Isles and as far away as North America. It was during these years that Stoker wrote his greatest novel, Dracula (1897). In 1905, Irving collapsed and died while on tour in Sheffield. Stoker was so profoundly affected by the death of his friend and hero that he suffered a stroke. After Irving’s death, Stoker continued to write fiction and do newspaper work until his own death in 1912.

Bram Stoker wrote numerous novels, short stories, essays, and lectures, but Dracula is by far his most famous work. His other works have not aged well, but the story of Count Dracula continues to sell steadily even to this day. Stoker coined the term “undead,” and his interpretation of vampire folklore has powerfully shaped depictions of the legendary monsters ever since.

2.2   The Synopsis

The story was beginning Jonathan Harker as a lawyer work to find houses in England for rich people. One day, there was a rich people named count Dracula from Transylvania, Eastern Europe wanted to buy an old house near London He invited Jonathan to visit his castle in Transylvania. Jonathan didn’t want to go. But, Mina coax him to go. Last, he went away to count’s castle. The road of castle was terrible. There were howling wolves and the driver of coach who picked up Jonathan as disappeared as arrived in castle. Jonathan met count who was terrible man looked like a cruel man. He spent the night a few days in castle. There were terrible cases in there. As he shaved in front of mirror, count was in behind him. He was so surprised because nobody had not seen in mirror. One day he saw golden dust in the air were changed the three beautiful women. A woman wanted to bite him. But, count was coming and chased them away. Then Jonathan saw count went out y window with black cloaks like the wings of huge birds. And he saw too count lay in the box with opened eyes but didn’t move and white sharp teeth. Suddenly the men brought the boxes away included count to the London.

Mina was invited to Lucy’s house in hythe until Jonathan returned. Because Arthur ( Lucy’s husband ) were in Amsterdam with his old teacher, professor van helsing. One night, Lucy was gone. Mina looked her for. And she saw her in the churchyard gate with someone who has two red eyes and white face. Suddenly, someone was gone. Lucy was getting ill with the marks on the neck. Then, Mina went to budapest to meet Jonathan. She told him about Lucy. Immediately he saw count with a beautiful girl. And he told Mina about count. One day they were married. Then, they have a bad news from Arthur that Lucy was died.

Arthur told Jonathan and Mina about how Lucy’s death. It was very strange and terrible. She didn’t look like Lucy. After a few days, they hear a news that a beautiful girl killed the children. They thought that she was Lucy. Then, Jonathan, Arthur and van helsing went to the vault. But Lucy was gone from the coffin. suddenly they saw Lucy in churchyard. She wasn’t Lucy but a vampire using her body. Then van helsing killed her with a golden cross and hammer the stake down in her heart, l vast cut off her head. Then she was really died.

Jonathan, Arthur and van helsing went to the castle. They wanted to destroy count. But count was gone from his wooden box. Jonathan was worried to his wife, mina. Then, they came back to London. But mina was with count. Mina has marks like Lucy. And van helsing hypnotized mina everyday in order she wasn’t changed to be a vampire.

Professor kept mina in circle of holly break and broke it into a pieces the ground around him. Suddenly, the three vampires called her at night. In order she was changed a vampire like them. But, they couldn’t enter the circle. And they changed back into the mist when the dawn came. In the morning, Jonathan, Arthur and van helsing looked the box for that filled up count. They found it and carried it away from the men. They saw count lay in the box. Then, Jonathan stuck his heart by stake and cut through the vampire’s throat. At the same time, count’s body was a heap of dust. The vampire was dead.

CHAPTER 3

Review of Related Literature

3.1 Literature

Literature  is simply another way the reader can experience the world around them through their  imagination, (Jones, 1968:1). The writer divides the large mass of knowledge or info two different group. There is the first, the literature of knowledge or Informative Literature. Secondly, the literature of power or imaginative literature. Jones (1968 : 1) stated that informative literature tells us that the world is round that deals with fact. Explanation and real people life history. Example : articles, magazine dictionaries, etc. And imaginative literature is to inform the authors thought, ideas feeling to the readers thought. Example : short stories, novel, poetry, and drama.

3.2 Novel

Novel is book length story in proses, whose author tries to create the serve that while we read, we experience actual life. Story of the novel can make the reader in value in the story  (Kennedy, 19983 : 180 ).

The  main differences between novel and short story are the length, the complexity  of plot, character and setting. Besides, the other difference between novel and short story is in focus. A short story focuses one incident in time. A novel has far more range. A novel may have more character than short story. And the number of settings of novel will probably be greater.

Between novel and short story, there are some similarities. Both are prose fiction and deall with truth, problems, conflict and have the same aim that is to entertain and to inform.

3.3 Kinds of novel

Abrams ( 1971 : 113 ) classified types of novel into there separate:

  1. The sosiological novel, emplasize the ifluence f social and economic conditionon characters and events.
  2. The historical novel, takes it setting and some of characters and events are fairly elaberaly developed and importame to the central narrative.
  3. The regional novel, emphasize the setting, speech and customs of a particular locality, not merely  as local color, but as important condition affecting the temperament of the characters, and their ways of thinking, feeling, acting.

As stated by Sumardjo and saini ( 1988 : 29-30 ) novel can be divided into three. They are romance, advature, and fantastic novel. Romance novel usually discusses a love that happens between a man and a woman. Adventure novel talks about someone’s experices. And fantastic novel talks about unrealistic and impossible thinks in the life.

This study is discussing are of this kinds, the writer fries to analyze a novel “ Dracula “ written by bram stoker that is included in fantastic novel it tells about vampire who killed people that is about unrealisstic and imposible things in the life.

3.4       The struggle

Accaording to pei and mario in chasanah ( 2003 : 16 ) truggle is strong effort, on series effent, aggainst any adverse agencies or conditions, as in order to maintain one’s exercise ir rto affain someone. Based on definition above, the writer concludes that struggle is hard effert done by someone or group and he or she also sacrifites material, mental moreover his / her life to reach the porpose. In this case struggle is explained based on these twofactors : mental and material struggle. Mental struggle concerns with struggle that is related to one’s feeling or thooght and it is abstract. For example to control her / his emotion material or phsycal struggle concern with struggle that is related to physical contact or material, for example action and things.

Bibliography

  • Abraham, M.H. 1971. A Glossary of literature term. 3rd Edition. New York : Holt, Rineheadrt and wiston,Inc.
  • Hornby, As. 1974. Oxford Aduanced Learner’s Dictionary of currnt English. London : Oxford University Press.
  • Jones, Jr. Edward. 1966. Outline of literature. New York : The Macmi’llan Company.
  • Kennedy, X. J. 1983. Literature : An Introduction to fiction, Poetry and Drama. Boston : little, Broen, and Company.
  • Ary, Donald, et. All. 1979. Introduction to research in Education. New York : holt, Renihart and Wiston.
  • Mac Millan. 1984. Appreciating literature. New York. Mac Millan publishing Company.
  • Stevick, Philip. 1967. The theory of the novel. New York : The free pas.

Stoker, Bram.1897. Dracula. Romanian

 

The writer : Asih Widya Astuti
Npm : 1106080115

WRITING 5 ASSESMENT

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background of the study

Language is part of people’s life which is used as a means of communication to make a relationship with other people in society. So that, it is very important for people in the society to know how to use language appropriately to make the communication go smoothly’ people should know how to speak to other to makes more communicative.

English as a foreign language plays an important role in our country. It becomes international language in the globalization era. This language becomes more important as it gears the communication among people, culture and their technological development.

In the line with the rapid development of science and technology now days English is unavoidable. Therefore, English has to be mastered if Indonesian want this country to be develop one. It is primarily due to the fast that rapid development of science and technology has been dominated by western countries in which English is widely used.

To prepare the nation which is aware of English and understand science ang technology, the minister of education and culture has decided to consider English as we grow up unless we are abnormal. Because of this common ability, we tend to take the preciousness of the language very much for granted.

English as a foreign language taught in Indonesia from elementary school to university level. In elementary school, English is taught as compulsory local content and given automatically to primary status among the other foreign language, vocabulary, one of the important aspects of language will make the students easy to communicate to each other and master the aspects of language, Mujiono (1993) state :

Vocabulary in English as a foreign is taught in school for the purpose of providing the students language skill, there are listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Some general  statements say that the techniques of teaching reading comprehension and other (listening, speaking, and writing, are also focused on vocabulary).

In learning a foreign language students should analyze what they have to do, when they received the language assignments. They must be led to understand assignment connected with their habit of using their own language to enrich their vocabulary. Gairns and Redman (1992) state :

In organizing school learning, we have to select vocabulary carefully to ensure that high priority items are included, and provide varied opportunities for practice available to the “street learner”.

To gain the the instructional objectives in teaching learning process, a teacher has responsibility for the students to increase the achievement in developing skills,. However, after learning English for sixth year secondary level, is was discovered that high school graduate only master vocabulary consisted of 1000 – 2000 words ( Norweni in Herlinawati, 1998). Even English department students who are prepared then selected to be English teacher for junior high school also have some problems. She said that is is widely known that after learning English at least six year, Indonesian students can not understand English easily, as the number of vocabulary to be mastered, Lado (1969) mentioned the following :

At present it is possible to guess that a speaking vocabulary of 2000 words are in adequate minimum number for the purpose of basic communication, and for reading a vocabulary 7000 words are a clear minimum needs, vocabulary for writing and listening should be better set  3000 to 4000 words.

Different level of the students have different imitation in mastering vocabulary and different duration of time presentation. According to Gairns and Redman (1992), “ low level students would achieve a productive vocabulary of approximately 1000 items over 125 hours of study”.

Realizing the fact that learning English of foreign language especially English vocabulary materials, Homby (1995) states “ total number of word know of person”.

This study mainly concerns with the techniques of teacher English vocabulary for elementary school level. Moreover, the role of teacher’s competence of mastering various techniques is very important to make the students to be able to do or achieve the aim of the instructional program or mastering vocabulary. Ur (1996) state “ It is better to teach vocabulary in separated, spaced session than to teach it all at once”. According to Gairns and Redman (1992), “ To understand the words fully, therefore, a students must know not only what it refers to but also where the boundaries are that separate it from words of related meaning”.

We may say that vocabulary is one of the important elements of language and it should be taught effectively and purposefully. To do this effectively, the teacher must have both theoretical and knowledge about subject matter. Ryan and Copper (1984 : 302) state “ to do this effectively, the teacher must have both theoretical, knowledge about learning and human behavior and knowledge about subject matter to be taught”.

The writer believes that English is really important for the beginner and the interaction of the teachers and learners are needed in teaching learning process.

In this “ skripsi” the writer tries to describes the techniques of teaching English vocabulary to the fifth year student at SDIT AL-USWAH Tuban.

1.2  Statements of the problem

The writer intends to investigate the following matters :

1.2.1        What kind of techniques are used by the teacher in teaching English vocabulary?

1.2.2        How does the teacher implement the techniques in teaching vocabulary?

 

1.3  Purpose of the study

Based on the statements above, the purpose of the study are :

1.3.1        To describe the kind of techniques used by the teacher in teaching English vocabulary.

1.3.2        To describe the implementation of those techniques in class.

 

 

 

1.4  Significance of the study

The writer hopes the result of the study will give positive for the development English teachers and also for the pupils.

1.4.1        For the teachers

It will be able to give valuable information to serve a feedback which contributes to improve their techniques in teaching vocabulary and improve their knowledge about vocabulary items.

1.4.2        For the students

It will know well the teaching and learning has fulfilled the need of the pupil and achieve the goal of the learning and teaching English.

1.5  Limitations of the study

This study that is carried out at SDIT AL-USWAH Tuban focus on aspect of English language and also the techniques. Because of limited time and energy, the writer limit the problems as follows :

1.5.1        The kind of techniques in teaching English vocabulary at SDIT AL-USWAH Tuban.

1.5.2        The implementation of those techniques on the fifth year students at SDIT AL-USWAH.

 

1.6  Definition of key terms.

To avoid misunderstanding in the interpretation of words used in this research, the writer give the definition of the terms used in this research. The terms are used as follows :

 

  1. Analysis
: Study of sometimes by examining its parts or statement of the result of this ( Learner’s Pocket Dictionary, 1995).
  1. Technique (s)
: Is the ways presenting the materials of vocabulary to the students that take places in the classroom.
  1. Implement
: To carry out or put into practice. ( Oxford Learner’s Pocket Dictionary, 1995:2008)
  1. Teaching
: The process of giving interaction, knowledge and skill to somebody ( Oxford Learner’s Pocket Dictionary New Edition, 1992:425 ).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Vocabulary Definition

Many writers believe that learning English as a foreign language, the learning should first of all, master the sound system, the basic structural patterns, and limited number of vocabulary items of the target language. Problem faced by the students in learning English come from the internal factor in the language.

Many experts define the terms of vocabulary in many various ways. All of the definition have the same idea that is amount of words used for communications in a certain language.” Vocabulary is all the words known to particular person, the special set of words used in particular kinds of word. A list of word usually in alphabetical order with explanations of their meaning, les complete than a dictionary”. ( Longman P: 1229).

Harris define that vocabulary is range of words known to, or used by a person in trade, profession, etc, or total number of word which ( with rules for combining them) make up a language (1980;959).

From definition above, it can be included that vocabulary is an activity to use an oral or written language. It can be practiced with pattern drill and expressing ideas, thought, oral or written communication. So, vocabulary in valves activity participation or the part of studies.

 

2.2 Vocabulary as Words and Their Meaning.

Finoccharo ( 1980:60) state “ words become meaningful only when studied and considered in contexts, that is with all the other words sorroud them and helping to give them their meaning”.

In this item, the write tries to describe about the words and their meaning focusing on two items.

2.2.1 Polisemy, Homonym.

According to Grains and Redman (1992) :

  1. Polisemy : we use them to describe a single word from with the several different but closely related meaning. In English for example, we can talk about the ‘head’ of a person, the ‘ head’ of a pin, or the ‘head’ of organization.
  2. Homonym : when a single word has several different meanings which is not closely related, we use the term homonym. Example : a file/fail may be used for keeping papers in, or may be a toll for cutting, or something hard substances. According to Ur (1996), homonym is the item that serves as specific example of a general concept (dog, lion, mouse, are homonym of an animal).

2.2.2 Synonym, Antonym.

a. Synonym : is a word that has the same meaning as another word, for example :                                                 .                      sad synonym of in happy ( Blancard and Root, 2005: 88).

b. Antonym : is the word with opposite meaning, like old and new (Thornbury, 2002: 9).

2.3 Word Building.

Gains and Redman (1992) sate that there are three form of word building that care characteristic of English.

2.3.1 Affixation

Affixation is the process of adding prefixes and suffixes to the base item, in this way, item can be modified in meaning and/or chinging from ne part of speech to another. To base form “man” for instance, we can add prefixes in the following way : man

Man + ly                      = manly

Un + man + ly             = unmanly

2.3.2 Compounding

Compounding is the formation word from two or separate word can stand independently in other circumstances. There are three different types of compound. Adjective-compound (e.g. hard-working, timeconsuming), verb-compound ( e.g. to sight-see), and noun compound.

2.3.3 Conversion.

Conversion is the process which an item may be used in different part of speech.

e.g. We’ve just had already swam (noun).

I cann’t swim very well.

2.4 Type of Vocabulary.

Fachrurrozy (1993) devided English vocabulary into two types :

  1. Function words are the words which have little or no lexical meaning but serve chiefly to indicate grammatical relationships.

–          Articles                  : a, an, the.

–          Preposition            : at, by, like, of.

–          Remonstrative       : this, that, those, these.

–          Conjunctions         : and, but, or, not only.

–          Pronouns               : I, we, his, them.

  1. 2.      Content words.

Content words are the words which carry lexical meaning in their selves.

–          Noun                     : book, water, table.

–          Verb                      : go, walk, study.

–          Adjective              : warm, diligent, beautiful.

–          Adverb                  : fast, happy, differently.

2.5  Kinds of Vocabulary.

There are two kinds of vocabulary : first, active vocabulary means vocabulary that often used by of person to express his idea and sense. Second, passive vocabulary that is seldom used.

Gairns and Redman (1992) divided vocabulary into two kinds. Namely respective vocabulary and productive vocabulary. Respective vocabulary means language items, which, can only recognized and comprehended in the context of reading and listening materials. Productive vocabulary is language item, which the learner can recall and use appropriately in speech and writing (these tem are often called passive and active vocabulary).

From that opinion shown that vocabularies almost the same with active and passive vocabulary.

2.6  The Techniques of Teaching Vocabulary.

About the techniques of teaching vocabulary, Droff (1987) proposes the following procedure :

  1. Say the word clearly and write in on the board.
  2. Get the class repeat the word in chorus.
  3. Translate the word into the students own language.
  4. Ask the students to translate the word.
  5. Give example to show how the word is used.
  6. Ask question using new word.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE RESEACH OF THE TECHNIQUE AND THE IMPLEMENTATION IN TEACHING VOCABULARY TO THE FIFTH YEAR STUDENTS OF SDIT AL – USWAH TUBAN

                                                                                                                        

OLEH :

MOH. NAJIBULLAH

NPM : 1106080038

 

 

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT

FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION

UNIVERSITY OF PGRI RONGGOLAWE TUBAN

2011

Comparing English Levels of Public Vs Private Junior High School Graduates of the first grade at SMAN 1 Paciran Author Finaty Ahsanah/1106080004

ABSTRACT

Finaty Ahsanah, 2008. Comparing English Levels of Public Vs Private Junior High                                                                              School graduates of the tenth grade at SMAN 1 – Paciran. Skripsi, Program                                                             study: Bahasa Inggris, Universitas PGRI Ronggolawe Tuban,

Key Word: Public school, Private school, Language English Competent.

This study is examines the English levels of private Vs government junior high school graduates of the tenth grade at SMA N 1 Paciran, as we know there are a lot of people assume that students of government school are more competent than students of private school due to this reason the writer would like to know, are the people assumption is right?. The research does in the tenth grade of SMA N 1 Paciran by giving them test and questioners. The participant consists of 97 student’s first grade (divide into three classes). They have a test and should answer 25 multiple choice questions individually. And the fact is the statements of many people are right that students of government school more competent in English language than students of private school.

 

 

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background of the study

Language is one of the most importance things for human being to communicate with each others. By using language human being are able to share our feelings to other human, for especially English language. English language is the international language and this is world of globalization. English language is a common language and is spoken in many countries. It is considered as universal language. Most of the universities worldwide include English as one of their major subject.

According to Raghu Sundaram that “English is the only language that any one can understand. So to say, it has become as an ideal language for expressing our feelings”.

 

Based on this statement that English language is very important for living, there are many schools who give students English major weather at private or public school, in every school there is English major that they will give to the students.

Many people assume that students of public school are more competent in than students of private school, especially in English levels. There are a lot of assumptions that public school is better than private school. This assumption has been there since long time ago and we can not just break this assumption.

Due to this problem the writer would like to know whether the students of public school is better than students of private school in English levels, the writer also want to prove the assumption. So the writer interest to prove the ability of English of the public school’s students and private school’s students by the title “COMPARING ENGLISH LEVELS OF PUBLIC Vs PRIVATE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES OF THE 10th GRADE AT SMAN 1 PACIRAN”.

 

1.2  Statement of The Problem

Based on the background of the study discussed previously, there is a problem that will be a study is follow:

  1. Is the students 10th grade of public school better in English levels than students of private school at SMAN 1 Paciran?

 

1.3  Objective of The Study

The objective of the study is the writer wants to know the English levels of the public school students and private school students of the 10th grade at SMAN 1 Paciran.

 

1.4  Significance of The Study

Through the result of this study, the writer wants to know the significance ability or English level of public school’s students and private school’s students. The writer hope this study can be reference for many teacher, parents, and everyone who wants to know the English levels of public school Vs private school. Finally the writer hopes that the readers will realize that every student have same English levels weather they are graduate from public school or graduate from private school.

 

1.5  Scope and Limitation

The scope of this study is the English levels of public Vs private junior high school graduates of the 10th grade at SMAN 1 Paciran, focused on that study only.

1.6  Definition of Key Term

There are several terms, which are significance for this study. Therefore, the writer will give some definition about these terms to avoid misunderstanding.

  1. Language is a system for encoding information (2011:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/language).
  2. English language is an Indo-European language belonging to the West Germanic branch; the official language of Britain and the United States and most of the commonwealth countries.(2011: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/English+language
  3. Student is used for anyone who is learning (2011:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/student).
  4. In the United States, Australia, and many other countries, public school is a school that is supported financially by the government and usually provides free education.  (2011:http://dictionary.reverso.net/english-cobuild/public%20school).
  5. Private school is a school supported by a private organization or private individuals rather than by the government.(2011: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O999-privateschool.html).

 

1.7  Organization of The Study

This skripsi will be divided into five chapters. Chapter one contains the introduction, such as the background of the problem, statement of the problem, objective of the study, significance of the study, scope and limitation, definition of the key terms, and organization of the study. Chapter two contains review of the related literature and chapter three discusses the methodology. Then, chapter four contains analysis and findings. Then, chapter five will conclude the content of the paper.

 

 

 

CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

In this chapter is presented both reviews of related literature and these reviews are important as a guide to answer the problem as stated in the statement of the problem.

 

  1. A.    Definition of a Public School

The California Department of Education further defines a public school as a kindergarten through grade twelve and/or adult educational institution that:

  1. Is supported with public funds;
  2. Is authorized by action of and operated under the oversight of a publicly constituted local or state educational agency;
  3. Provides educational services to all students who are enrolled;
  4. Has an appropriately credentialed teacher (or teachers) who provides instruction;
  5. Has at least one appropriately credentialed administrator, usually a principal, who is responsible for all aspects of school administration including supervision and evaluation of staff, fiscal responsibility, student discipline and safety, supervision and evaluation of curriculum, and assessment of academic achievement and school accountability;
  6. Administers California statewide assessments to its students at the required grade levels;
  7. Has an administrator, usually a principal, with access to and responsibility for maintaining official student records for all enrolled students;
  8. Except for charters, implements a curriculum that fully meets state requirements as specified in the California Education Code relating to required courses of study;
  9. Is non-sectarian;
  10. Except for charters, the entity’s budget structure is consistent with the budget structure of schools operated by the authorizing agency; and
  11. Based in one or more buildings that are “Field Act” compliant, unless exempt.

B.     Definition of Private School

Private school or An independent school is a school that is independent in its finances and governance; it is not dependent upon national or local government for financing its operations nor reliant on taxpayer contributions, and is instead funded by a combination of tuition charges, gifts, and in some cases the investment yield of an endowment. It is governed by a board of directors that is elected by an independent means and a system of governance that ensures its independent operation. It may receive government funds. However, its board must be independent. The terms independent school and private school are often synonyms in popular usage outside the United Kingdom. Independent schools may have a religious affiliation, but the more precise usage of the term excludes parochial and other schools if there is a financial dependence upon, or governance subordinate to, outside organizations. These definitions generally apply equally to primary education, secondary education, and tertiary education institutions.

  1. C.    English Language Competence

There are many ways to know the English competent of the students, through some test teacher will know the students English level, Such as: listening test, speaking test, writing test, grammar test, and reading test. In this study are use grammar and reading test.

  1. Grammar definition

Grammar is the set of structural rules that govern the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language. The term refers also to the study of such rules, and this field includes morphology, syntax, and phonology, often complemented by phonetics, semantics, and pragmatics. Linguists do not normally use the term to refer to orthographical rules, although usage books and style guides that call themselves grammars may also refer to spelling and punctuation.

  1. Reading definition

For all students, developing skills in reading English begins with a solid under-standing of the relationships between English sounds and letters—the relationships between the spoken and written language. For the English learner those concepts are first developed through the recognition and production of English sounds. Students need to learn first those sounds that exist and then those that do not exist in their first language. Students then are taught to transfer this knowledge to the printed language. As students develop knowledge of the correspondence between sounds and printed symbols, they also develop skills to deal with English morphemes (e.g., prefixes, suffixes, root words). Those word-analysis skills are some of the building blocks students need to develop fluency in English and literacy skills.

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METODHOLOGY

 

In this chapter presented the method used in conducting this research. Realized that this method has an important role whether this research will be successful or unsuccessful. This chapter also explains the strategy followed in gathering and analyzing the data.

 

  1. Research Design

The research design of this study is qualitative approaches. The qualitative research is the research that researcher observes person or events in their natural setting. Its major purpose is to understand the influences of the particular context on the events. This methodology includes case studies and other naturalistic approaches.

According to Jack R. Fraenkel, there are some general characteristics in qualitative research (Fraenkel, 1993:380)

  1. The natural setting is the direct source of data and the researcher in the key instrument in qualitative research
  2. Qualitative data are collected in the form of words or pictures rather than numbers.
  3. Qualitative researchers are concerned with process as well as product.
  4. Qualitative researchers tend to analyze their data inductively.
  5. How people make sense out of their lives is a major concern to qualitative researchers.

Not all qualitative studies will necessarily display of these characteristics with equal strength. Nevertheless, taken together, they give a good overall picture of what is involved in this type of research.

 

  1. The Source of Data

The source of the data of this study is a students 10th grade in English classroom situation. The name of the school is SMAN 1 Paciran. The data of this study is the English levels of he students. In this case the writer only observes 3 classes of 6 class of the 10th grade at SMAN 1 Paciran. There is a reason, because the students randomly put into 3 classes and consist of 97 students. These participants are more than enough for this research.

  1. Steps of Data Collection

The steps in qualitative research begin when the researcher identifies the phenomenon is wished to study, and will end when the researcher draws whatever final conclusions is wished to make (Fraenkel, 1993:381).

Based on the qualitative research methodology, the writer observes with steps of data collection. There are several steps can be identified after finding the school for observation.

  1. The instrument of this study is the students. The writer observed the students activity in the English classroom.
  2. Before doing observation, the writer made a good relation with the students.
  3. After introducing process, the writer did the reading comprehension test.
  4. After doing the test, the writer gave the questioners to the students.
  5. The data was being collected from both test and questioners.

 

  1. Data Analysis

The writer transcribes the data based on the following chronological order.

  1. First, the writer analyzed the English levels of the students by using some test and questioners.
  2. Second, the writer analyzed the data based on the analyzing the English levels.
  3. Third, analyzing the data, the writer classified the data into two part, public school’s data and private school’s data.
  4. The last step of the data analysis was concluding the data analysis.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

Fraenkel, JackR. 1993. How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education United States: McGraw-Hill, Inc.

Google. 2011. The Importance of English Language. Taken from Google: http://ezinearticles.com/?The-Importance-Of-The-English-Language on June 28th 2011.

Google. 2011. Public School. Taken from Google:  http://www.cde.ca.gov/ds/si/ds/dosinfo.asp  On June 28th 2011.

Google. 2011. Private School. Taken from Google:    http://www.answer.com/topic/private-school  on June 28th 2011.

Wikipedia. 2011. What is students? Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/student   on June 28th 2011.

Wikipedia. 2011. What is language? Wikipedia:    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/language on June 28th 2011.

Wikipedia. 2011. Independent School Wikipedia:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/independent-school on June 28th 2011.

The Application of Role Play as a Technique in teaching Speaking

ABSTRACT Salsabilatul Jannah 2011.”The Application of Role Play as a Technique in teaching Speaking” Key Word: role play, a technique, teaching speaking English become the most essential language in the world. Almost all the people from many different countries around the world use it to communicate. Role play is very important in teaching speaking because… Read more.

HESTER PRYNNE’S EMOTIONAL EXPRESSSION OF NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE’S “THE SCARLET LETTER” THESIS

 

Name  : Budiyono

Class   : 2008b

NPM   : 1106080425

 

 

        ABSTRACT

Kasan, 2010. A Study on the Hester Prynne’s Emotional Expression of Nathaniel Hawthorne’s novel “The Scarlet Letter” .Thesis, English Department, Faculty of language and letter, Kanjuruhan University of Malang.

Advisor (1) Hj. Like Raskova. O, M.Ed ; (2) Maria Cholifah, Ss. Mpd

 

Key words:  novel, emotional expression of Hester Prynne, the scarlet letter.

 

Novel is prose part of literary works that presents the imaginations that explode the hidden fact inside the text.  A beautify of the novel also shows the truth about human life that combined with esthetic. Therefore, the writer takes a novel as an object of this study.

During the people life, humans have experiences, both good and bad. It does not always deal with something that happened personally, but it may be a part of the experience itself. One part of experiences is human problem. In this study, the writer focused on analysis on the Hester Prynne’s emotional expression of Nathaniel Hawthorne’s novel “The Scarlet Letter”.

From this study, the writer knew some problems faced by some characters on this novel, which are important aspect of literary works. For supporting the purpose of the study, the writer uses many sources they are: novel, some references of literature, and Internet.

To analyze this study, the writer uses procedure of qualitative research, which is a form of words or the research that focuses on how individuals and groups view and understand the word, constructs the meaning out of their experiences, and is not numeric. The research method uses in this paper are librarian literary of the novel that corpus is used to select the data in relating to topic of discussion.

The point of the chapter fourth contains describe the emotional expressions, aspects that influence the emotion, and   the effect of the emotional expressions on the main character in the novel, Hester Prynne. The writer takes only one main character namely Hester Prynne, she is a young married woman who has adultery and she has broken the rule of religion, culture, and morality. Starting from her committing adultery with a young clergyman, Arthur Dimmesdale, until she gave birth, the conflicts that produced the emotions and the tortures started.

Referring to the result of this study, the writer draws conclusion either that Hester Prynne’s emotions are produced by some conflicts or the emotional expressions have variety of effects on Hester Prynne. In addition, the writer suggest to the reader or the further researchers to learn more about literature, so they are able to analyze the extrinsic elements that related to human life, creatively.

 

 

 

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background  of Study

We have been quite familiar works of arts in our daily life. They can be painting, architecture, music or literature. Each of them has its own genre. In literature, for instance; it has drama, poetry, and prose which popular with its novel. Literature consist human implementation and expression that describe the human life with their whole aspect of life. In other words, literature represents human imaginations, feelings, thoughts, and ideas that actualized in fictions and non-fictions that mostly adapted from real histories and human experiences. Moody states that literature springs from our inborn love of telling a story, in arranging words in pleasing patterns, of expressing in words some special aspect of our human experience. (In Miarni Agustini 2001:01)

Discussing about literature, of course we do not only discus the literature description, but also we need to know about the development and existence of the literature self. In Indonesia, literature develops and exists especially in prose part, novel. At least appearing some new novelists, as like; Andrea Hirata with his novel “Laskar Pelangi” which got label best seller book, and Habiburrahman El-Shirazi proved that this literary work has high existence in Indoneia. According to Arif Rifqi, Mohammad (2007:02), the existence of the novel is significant than science book. That caused by the getter attention of the novel self and the enthusiasm of the novel reader.

In other side, as a literary work, novel being a favorite one by people in Indonesia because novel presents the imagination that explode the disappear fact inside the text.  A beautify of the novel also present the truth about human life that combined with esthetic. Next , by reading the novel, human may acquire a great deal of knowledge and experience including values of life, such as humility, wisdom and truth that presented by the novelist.

Somehow, people to have more insight of the story in a novel, some of them still find some difficulties. They just read and read the novel but never understand what the point inside the story and the author wants to. So, for understanding the novel, the reader not only concern to the intrinsic aspects of the novel itself, such as; Plot, character and characterization, theme, setting  and message but also the reader has to focus on the extrinsic aspect or psychological aspect as like; the emotional expression. In other word, this approach attempts to work on literature through the analysis of the character based on the light of modern psychological knowledge and uses modern theories of elucidating and interpreting the work.

As we know, the emotional expression is a human reaction shown while he or she had the physic or mental experiences, generally. In the novel, emotional expression can be identified through the action, speech, and thought of the character. Even though it is not the element part of the novel but it is important in analyzing the novel because trough understanding the emotional expression a reader will know about human problems probably increase the human emotion, and the human reactions in responding the problem or conflict that is showed by the character in the novel. Thus, that is relevant with the purpose of the novel is not only to be written or read as a literary work, but also it is presented to be good advice for the reader trough the story, event, action of character, etc.

The two approaches (intrinsic and extrinsic) are same important. The intrinsic approach provides the reader with a better understanding of what the author wants to convey his or her novel whereas the extrinsic one can broaden the reader’s knowledge by exploring and relating with the aspects outside the novel.

In studying the psychology aspects of the novel, the writer has picked out a novel, which written by Nathaniel Hawthorne, Scarlet Letter. Because in this novel, the author presented the exiting story about human life in puritan era which could bring the reader’s  emotion, enthusiasm, imagination and feeling and explained by using simple words and clearly. Therefore, the reader feels that he/she observes the scene and the novel’s characters directly. In addition, in this novel the writer finds the signals of human emotional problems and reactions in actualizing her/his emotion through speech, action, thought, and appearance as well.

In this study, the writer conducts to analyze the one of the main characters in the Scarlet Letter, Hester Prynne. The investigation is focused only on emotional expressions that are experienced by Hester Prynne. Hester Prynne’s emotional problems are started when she made affair with a man, Arthur Dimmesdale, until given birth after committing adultery and struggles to create a new life of repentance and dignity.

By analyzing the emotional expression of Hester Prynne, the writer would like to know the human’s characteristics and behaviors and would like to understand the relevant factors that possible to increase the human emotions.

 

1.2  Problems of the Study

Considering to the background of the study above, the writer formulates some statement of problems, as follows:

  1.     What the Hester Prynne’s emotional expressions found in the novel “The Scarlet Letter”?
  2. What are the aspects influence the Hester Prynne’s emotion in the novel “The Scarlet Letter”?
  3. What are the effects of emotional expression for Hester Prynne in novel “The Scarlet Letter”?

1.3  Objectives of the Study

Based on to the problems of the study, the writer determines the objectives are:

  1. To know the Hester Prynne’s emotional expressions found in the novel “The Scarlet Letter”.
  2. To find out the aspects influence in the Hester Prynne’s emotion in. the novel “The Scarlet Letter”.
  3. To describe the emotional expression effects for Hester Prynne in the novel “The Scarlet Letter”.

 

1.4    Scope and Limitation of the Study

In supporting the study become an authentic analysis, the writer either determines the novel  The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne as the object of the study, or limits to analyze the aspects indicate emotional problems of Hester Prynne that increase her emotional expressions including her speech, action, thought, and appearance as well.

 

 

1.5 Significance of the Study

Studying psychology automatically brought us learn the attitude and behavior of human being. Simply, a psychological experience even it is adapted from the point of a literary work, novel; for example. In relation to this, the writer hopes that it becomes a mental therapy, personally, and would be an important part of personal solution for human beings either interacting with social community or solving their problems, majority.

Another significant point of the study, the writer hopes this psychology analysis will be a new inspiration for the next researchers who do research on one of literature genres, especially the novel.

      

1.6. Definition of the key terms

To make the study clear to the readers and to avoid confusion in understanding the study, the writer would like to present several definitions of key terms, as follows:

  1. Hester Prynne is one of the main characters in a novel The Scarlet Letter.

2. Emotion is affective experiences that accompany generalized inner adjustment and mental and psychological stirred up states in the individual, and that shows itself in his avert behavior. (Crow and crow 2006:105)

3.  Nathaniel Hawthorne is the author of The Scarlet Letter.

4.  Scarlet Letter is a novel’s name written by Nathaniel Hawthorne.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Dr. D. Gunarsa, Singgih. 1981. Psikologi Perkembangan. Jakarta: BPK Gunung Mulia.

Dra. Fatimah, Enung. MM. 2006. Psikologi Perkembangan. Bandung: CV Pustaka Setia.

Honrby, As. 2005. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford             University Press.

Kenney, William. 1966. How to Analyze Fiction. New York: Monarch Press,      division of Simon & Schuster, Inc.

Mac Milan. 1966. Appreciating Literature. New York: Mac Milan publishing company

Moloeng, J. Lexy. 1989. Qualitative Research Methodology.  Bandung: Rodsakarya.

Soeryobroto, Soemardi. 1976. Psikologi Kepribadian. Yogjakarta: Rake Press

http://www.emotionalprocessing.org.uk (download on January 12, 2010, 01:04)

http://www.free-ebooks.net(download on December 22 of 2009, 02:30).

http://www.oise.utoronto.ca (accessed, 14 January 2010, 03:23)

Www. psychologyhelp.com (accessed, 10 January 2010, 23:10)

http://www.psychology.about.com (download on January 11 of 2010, 3:55)

http://www.wilderdom.com,personality (download on 3rd of January 2010, 3:50)

http://www.2020site.org,biography (download on January 11 2010: 02:00)

 

AN ANALYSIS OF JONATHAN’S STRUGGLE AS THE MAIN CHARACTER IN BRAM STOKER’S NOVEL “DRACULA”

ABSTRACT

Asih Widya.A. 2011. An Analysis of Jonathan’s Struggle as the Main Character in Bram Stoker’s Novel “ Dracula”.

Skripsi, English Department, Unirow Tuban, Advisor : Dr. Tri Budi Susatyo

 

Literary is simply another way we can experience the world us through out imagination. Literature is this broadest sense maybe classified into two. First, literature of knowledge of informative literature. Its function is to present information, to teach and to offer knowledge. The examples are history books, scientific articles, dictionary, etc. secondly, literature of power or imaginative literature. Its function is to entertain, to move, to arouse thought and feelings. The examples are novels, short stories, poems, plays ,etc.

A novel is a part of literary works that has length form is able to store all aspects of life that is written in prose.

The purpose of the study is to find out the answer of statement problems: what Jonathan’s Struggle is, what the cause of   Jonathan’s Struggle success is, and finally how the end of  Jonathan’s Struggle is.

The study uses descriptive qualitative research design. It means that does not use numbers or calculation to process the data but put on the quotation taken from the novel and describes them in order to give clear explanation and support her assumption.

The result of the research can be concluded as follows: first, what Jonathan’s Struggle is. Jonathan’s Struggle is to fight and hunt the strongest vampire, Count Dracula. Secondly, the cause of   Jonathan’s Struggle success is. Jonathan is helped by their two friends, Arthur and Professor Van Helsing in fighting Dracula. Finally, at the end of his struggle. Jonathan can find Dracula who not in moving situation in his box with his friends helping. So, he can kill Dracula. In the end, Dracula was died. And they and many people life in fearless.

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1        BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

As social beings, we like telling people about things that happen to us and we like to hear of things that happen to the other people. From description above, we can say that literature is simply another way we can experience the world us through out imagination. So for application of it, Braham Little (1996) divides literary works into four kinds., drama, novel, poetry and short story. The writer will discuss novel “ DRACULA” written by Bram Stoker. The writer discuss Jonathan’s struggle as a main character of novel. But before that, it is necessary to know a little about novel. Novel is a part of literary works that has length form is able to store all aspect of life that is written in prose.

At last, the writer is interested in analyzing the main character of  Bram Stoker’s novel “ Dracula” because it has not been discussed yet. When the writer was introduced to literature, she began to think that within literature lies a great lesson to learn, studying the major course, that is linguistic learn and language skills. The writer wants to discuss  Jonathan’s struggle as a main character of novel with the hope that she may get some experience of life and know how much important the struggle is. So in this point, she choose the title an Analysis of Jonathan’s Struggle as a Main Character in Bram Stoker’s “Dracula” as the topic of this discussion.

 

1.2        STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Nowadays, we often meet some problems of human life. The problems between one person and another’s difference because it is influenced by background of life. The writer explains the problem that is related with  Jonathan’s struggle. Before the writer write the title an Analysis of Jonathan’s Struggle as a Main Character in Bram Stoker’s “Dracula”, she presents the following questions.

  1. what is characterization of the main character in the novel?
  2. what is Jonathan’s struggle?
  3. what is the cause Jonathan’s struggle success?
  4. how is the end of  Jonathan’s struggle?

 

1.3         OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

Based of the problems above, the objectives of the study are as follows:

  1. the writer wants to know the characterization of the main character in the novel.
  2. the writer wants to know Jonathan’s struggle
  3. the writer wants to find the cause Jonathan’s struggle success.
  4. the writer wants to find the end of  Jonathan’s struggle.

 

1.4        SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

By discussing this topic, the writer wants to have great knowledge of literature and know more experience of life through finding Jonathan’s struggle as a main character. The readers will be able to add their knowledge, to get amusement, and also know how much important the struggle in the life. So that, it enables them to deepen the awareness of life.

 

1.5       LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The study focuses on the discussion onto   Jonathan’s struggle as a main character through the analysis of all subject matter but it does not mean that the other elements are not involved in this discussion. Therefore, the writer choose the title an Analysis of Jonathan’s Struggle as a Main Character in Bram Stoker’s “Dracula” to be analyzed.

1.6       DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS

Before discussing about the skripsi further, it is necessary for the writer to define key term related with the title of the skripsi

1.6.1        Analysis is The separation of a substance into its constituent elements, usually by chemical means, for the study and identification of each component. ( The American Heritage)

1.6.2        Characterization is the depicting of clear image of a person ( William Kenney. 1966:94)

1.6.3        Main character is the character who play the most important role in the play ( Jacob Sumardjo and Saini KM.1988:144)

1.6.4        Struggle is To strive, or to make efforts, with a twisting, or with contortions of the body. (Abraham Lincoln)

1.6.5        Dracula is a novel written by Bram Stoker

 

1.7       RESEARCH METHOD

According to A.S. Hornby  is this book “ the Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English, methodology is divided from the word “method” meaning the way of doing something. And logos/logic is research. So, Methodology is the way of doing research done by the researcher (1974:533).

1.7.1    Research Design

The writer tries to do through library research. It belongs to qualitative research. It means that it is the analysis of text of literary work without using number and calculation to process the data.

1.7.2    Source of Data and Research Data

Source of Data in this study is a novel “Dracula’. The writer’s research data is Jonathan’s Struggle as a main character found in “Dracula” written by Bram Stoker.

1.7.3    Procedure of Collecting and Analyzing Data

After the novel and data were collected, the writer analyzes them through the way of the content analysis is a procedure for categorization of data, for the purpose of classification and referring to the writer problems. The process of collecting and analyzing data by the writer can be described as follow: after then she identifies the data by giving symbol for each problem which is found in the novel. The writer also groups the data based on the problem. In the last, she describes the data and summarizes the findings.

 The writer: Asih Widya.A.

                           NPM: 1106080115

 


 

 

STUDENTS’ MOTIVATION IN LEARNING ENGLISH AT FIFTH YEAR OF SDN KUTOREJO TUBAN

ABSTRACT

Rr. Donna Citra K. 2011. : Students’ Motivation in Learning English at Fifth Year of SDN Kutorejo Tuban.
Advisor                                  : Drs. Tri Budhi
Key word                               : Students, Motivation, Learning English

       English is a foreign language in our country. Most of people interested in English because they believe it will give a chance for advancement in their professional life or carrier. It is due to the fact that English has become an international language communication where many different countries do their business and trade by using English. So, English is taught in every education level starting from Elementary School as a local content subject to university.

       Therefore, it is necessary for the teacher to convince the students that they will be successful in learning their subject, if they are motivated students. And students who have high motivation will promote better achievement. The teacher has to try hard to develop students’ power of mind in learning their subject matter and to guide them to reach the goals by giving them stimulate.

       Based on the problem above, the writer will take the interest factors. The main purpose of the study is to describe the students’ interest in learning English. It is expected to be useful for the teachers to help students to increase their ability in English and get good achievement.

       This study is descriptive quantitative. The method of data collection used in this study is document, questionnaire, interview and direct observation. The questions which are arranged based on the research problem. They are general interest in learning English.

       After analyzing data, it can be found that the students of SDN Kutorejo have good motivation in English because they have strong interest and positive attitude towards the process of learning and teaching.

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

       English is a foreign language in our country and one of the most important language in the world. As a foreign language, English is learned seriously by many people to have a good prospect at international community. Nowadays, English is an important language in Indonesia. Because of the importance of English, it is taught in all of formal school’s degrees, starting from elementary school up to universities. English also taught in courses as an informal school.

       In teaching and learning process in Elementary School, teacher plays a very important role in the classroom and the students would listen and do whatever their teacher ask them to do. So, the teacher should give motivation to the students to learn English well especially for those who have negative feeling toward English.

       In teaching learning, motivation is needed by students. motivation is an energy that drives someone to act, including in learning. one of the examples of giving motivation for students is challenging to study hard to get good mark for scholarship opportunity. The Ormrod states that motivation is something that energizer, directs and sustain behavior, it gets students moving, point them in a particular direction and keeps them going (1995: 472). Robbins (2201:155) defined motivation as the processes that account for an individuals intensity, direction and persistence effort toward attaining a goal.

     Motivation is a process within the individual students (William C Morse and G Max Wingo, 1969:355) and it is indispensable for him in the learning process to reach the goals. therefore, it is necessary for the teacher to convince the students that he will be successful in lerning his subject, if he is motivated student who is not motivated will do nothing although he has own interest in learning or doing something.

       Based on the background above, the title is “Students’ Motivation in Learning English at Fifth Year of SDN Kutorejo Tuban.

1.2 Statement of the Problems

The problems of the study can be formulated as follows:

1. How is the students motivation in learning English?

2. How is the students interest in learning English?

3. How is the classroom interaction between the teacher and the students?

4. What kind of techniques has the teacher applied to raise the students motivation and interest at SDN Kutorejo Tuban?

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study are to find out:

1. The students’ motivation in learning English

2. The students’ interest in learning English

3. The classroom interaction between the teacher and the students

4. The techniques applied by the teacher to raise the students’ motivation and interest at SDN Kutorejo Tuban

1.4 Significance of the Study

       The result of this study will be useful as an important information for students of Elementary school in SDN Kutorejo Tuban and the teacher should increase the motivation and encouragement of their students in order to be successful people in their life future.

1.5 Limitation of the Study

       This study is limited on the students’ motivation in learning English and the subjects of this study are the fifth year student of SDN Kutorejo Tuban.

1.6 Definition of the Key Terms

  • Student                     : Person who is studying at Collage or University. (Oxford Learner’s Pocket Dictionary, 1980:412)
  • Motivation              : Some kind of internal drive that encourage somebody to pursue a course of action (Harmer,1993:3) in this study motivation is something that energize the students to learn English.
  • Learning English   : Refers to study as a foreign language.

by: Rr. Donna Citra Kharisma 1106080099

istiadah

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study
A science and technology are increasing today, therefore the government suggests the quality of their education, because education is very important for young generation, they should study different kinds of sciences which can support them in forming themselves become a beneficial human being of their nation, country, and religion.
The result of education can be called as the high quality, if the ability, knowledge, and attitude which are possessed by many graduates for the next improvement and knowledge have they got, can be applied.
In the world of education of Indonesia, English is one of the important lessons, it is international language and has become means of communication interaction of many countries, and also become interaction language of many sciences.
For that purposes, the effort to introduce English should be applied earlier. Started from the elementary school and continued to the junior high school until to university. Naturally children are curious and interest in learning something new, e.g. English, and it will continuo to the next studying in the junior high school.
There are for language skills that must be mustered by learners, if they want to acquire English language well, there are reading, speaking, listening, and writing. These four language skills have a relationship each other, farther more writing has relation with three others, reading, listening and speaking. A writer is a reader when he read his writing during writing process, and also a speaker when his writing is read by readers.
In its relation with listening, the writer needs some ideas, inspirations and information during writing process, to complete his writing from text sources such as text books, magazines, news papers, etc, and also from non text sources like radio, television, discussion, conversation, etc
Among these four skills, writing is considered the most difficult activities by most English learners, they have difficulties whenever they start to write. In Lutfi Mubarok’s skripsi explained that Nunan (1983) stated that learning to write fluently and express safely is the most difficult of the skill for all language users. In addition Bell and Burnsby as citied by Nunan (1983,35) point out that writing is extremely complex cognitive activity in which the writer is required to demonstrate control of variable simultaneously, it needs language components, such as vocabulary, grammar or structure, and spelling to contract a good paragraph.
Vocabulary is the total number of words, which make up a language with rules for combining them. According to Harris j Albert, “the mastery of vocabulary of most students are lower than what is required, as a result when they continue their study, they have some difficulties, because the majority of text book are written in English”.
Learning vocabulary is an important part of all content learning as well as a significant part of any literacy program. Therefore, language learners and teachers should be creative, explorative, and innovative in their vocabulary learning and teaching. Various available strategies need to be scrutinized and implemented based on human vocabulary development and settings.
It has been the common practice in the primary classrooms that teachers are a dominant figure. In the writing class this dominance has been proved unfavorable for the children learning to write. Creative writing which enhances children to write on their own interest may avoid children from becoming idle in a writing class. However, it should be remembered that the children are not to be completely left to work on their own.
One way of varying the instructional material in teaching writing is by means of adopting some of the literary elements in a novel, for instance is short story. The short story is the perfect medium, while writing a novel is a herculean task, just about anybody has a craft of it. That does not mean that short stories are easy to write, though, and it certainly does not mean that they are not as artistic and valuable as novels. With practice, patience, and a passion for writing, they can be every bit as moving and memorable as their much longer cousins.
In presenting English, especially in teaching writing by using short stories, the teacher should be creative in choosing the material of the short stories and able to stimulate the students’ interest, in order the students will more enjoy learning English, so the lesson will be able to run well.
According to the explanation above, the writer gives the title of his skripsi “IMPROVING THE STUDENTS’ ABILITY IN WRITING BY SHORT STORY AT THE EIGHTH YEAR OF MTs. NAHJATUSSHOLIHIN PLAWANGAN KRAGAN REMBANG.

1.2 Statement of the Problem
Based on the background of the study above, the writer states the problems as follows:
1. Is short story effective to improve the students’ ability in writing?
2. What factors hinder in improving the students’ ability in writing by using short story?

1.3 Objective of the Study
In accordance with the statements of the problems above, the objective of the study are:
1. To know the effectiveness of short story in improving the students’ ability in writing.
2. To know the factors which hinders in improving the students’ ability in writing by using short story.

1.4 Significant of the Study
The writer expects that this study/research will be useful for:
1. Teacher
a. The result of observation will useful for teacher as an attempt to improve them to do their duty, especially teaching writing to junior high school.
b. The teacher is able to choose the method and media effectively in teaching writing.
c. The teacher knows how far the students’ ability and their problems faced especially in writing by using short story.
2. Students
a. The students will enjoy learning English especially in writing
b. The students have insight that the more they know and master in vocabulary they will get easier in writing composition.
c. The students will be able to make a short story based on the title of story.
3. Other researcher
The result of observation will useful too for next researcher in using reference and making comparison.

1.5 Limitation of the Study
In this research, the writer wants to limit the study about improving the students’ ability in writing by short story at the eighth year students in A class of MTs. NAHJATUSSHOLIHIN PLAWANGAN KRAGAN REMBANG
1.6 Definition of the Key Terms
There are some key terms used in this skripsi, so to make understand to the readers, the writer tries to give definition of key terms:
1. Improve
It is become or makes something better (Oxford Learner’s Pocket Dictionary 1991: 209).
2. Students
Students are children age about six to twelve (Oxford Hornby AS, ET. All learning pocket dictionary, 1995: 135).
3. Ability
It is capable of doing physical activity or mortality before or after getting training in writing short story.
4. Writing
The state of being of letters which related to the sounds we make when we speak (Byrne, 1981: 1).
Furthermore Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium through the use of a set of signs or symbols (known as a writing system).
5. Short story
It is fiction and non fiction story and usually written in narrative prose (Wikipedia).
A short story focuses on one incident in time and it is not as a complex and length as a novel.

The translation of Gerund In Carolin Plaisted Novel ELOVE And Its Translation By Sutanti Lesmana

ABSTRACT

Suci Gianti, Siti, 2011 : The translation of Gerund In Carolin Plaisted Novel ELOVE
And Its Translation By Sutanti Lesmana
Advisor :
Key word : Translation, Gerund, Class shift

One of the problems that translators need to solve in translating a text
into Indonesian language is gerund because there is no gerund system in
Indonesian. Gerund has a noun form but it may have a verbal meaning. In fact,
mostly gerund has a verbal meaning. This system does not exist in Indonesian
language.
The aims of this research are to describe the equivalence of gerund from
English into Indonesian language and to describe the procedures used by
the translator in translating gerund into Indonesian language in E-love by
Caroline Plaisted bilingual edition.
In addition, this research tends to be descriptive qualitative research
since it does not deal with number at all, which describes about the gerund and
the translation into indonesian used in E-love by caroline Plaisted bilingual
edition.
In addition, the gerunds in E-love are categorized based on the functions,
they are object of preposition, object of verb and subject. Then they are focused
on what procedures the translator uses to translate the gerunds. The procedures
in translating gerunds are divided into; 1. A shift which consists of class shift and
unit shift. 2. A non shift which consist of non class shift and omission.
After analyzing the data, the writer’s first conclusion is that gerund is
usually translated into either a verb or a noun. Mostly gerunds are translated
into a verb with the prefix Me+V. The writer’s second conclusion is that
gerunds are translated either by shift or non shift. Mostly gerunds are translated
by class shift.
At last, the writer suggests and has big expectation to the next researcher
to be able to explore the procedures of gerund translation deeply. The writer
realizes there are many weaknesses in his study, especially in the occurrence of
gerund translation and its parts are difficult to be found.

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
1.1. Background of the Study
One of the problems that translators need to solve in translating a text is
the gerund because there is no gerund system in the Indonesian language.
According to W. Stannard Allen, a gerund is defined as the part of a verb that
ends in –ing which has the force of a noun as well as that of a verb. (1991:177)
The reason why the gerund system does not exist in the Indonesian language is
that the concept of gerund is different from nominalization in the Indonesian
language. According to Gorys Keraf, nominalization is derived from a verb or an
adjective by adding affixes such as pe+V, pe-+V+ -an, ke-+V+ -an and V+ -an.
(1990:60-61) A Gerund is derived from a verb by adding the participle -ing.
Besides that, nominalization only has a substantial meaning. The gerund,
however, has a verbal meaning or a substantial meaning. According to Wiliting
, the gerund has a force of a noun if the gerund has a substantial feature such as
having an article in front of it and having a plural noun. When a gerund has a
force of a noun, it has a substantial meaning. Substantive is a word that can
function as a noun such as a gerund, an infinitive and a noun. The gerund has a
force of a verb if the gerund has a verbal feature such as having its own object,
and having inflected in the perfect and the passive. When a gerund has a force
of a verb, it has a verbal meaning. (1983:32-33) When this is the case, gerund
becomes a hybrid because it has a noun form but it has a verbal meaning.
The translator may try to maintain the form of a gerund which is a
noun by adding affixes such as pe- an, ke-an, pe- and -an. This is one of the
procedures in translating the gerund into the Indonesian language. However,
in practice, a translator has to use other procedures to achieve a dynamic
equivalence where the meaning is the most important factor to transfer and
not the noun form. The translator may use a class shift by adding affixes
such as be-, me-, me- -kan, di- and ter- because he or she finds that using
affixes such as pe- an, ke-an, pe- and -an is not possible or it will make the
translation sounds unnatural. The example is that the sentence “I could not
bear thinking about it.” is translated “Aku tidak tahan memikirkannya.” The
translator can not replace the affix me-+V+-kan with the affix pe- an, ke-an,
pe- and –an. The sentence will sound unnatural if the translator replaces it.
This is because there is not a noun that has a verbal meaning in Indonesian.
This system does not exist in Indonesian language. According to Peter
Newmark, unnatural translation is marked by interference, primarily from the
SL text, possibly from a third language known to the translator including his own,
if it is not the target language. He also states that one of the things that we must
pay attention to is the gerund. (1981:27)
According to Peter Newmark in, translating a gerund often uses
transpositions. (1981:88) Transposition illustrates a frequent tension between
grammar and stress. According to Helen Hoyt Schmidt in Advanced English
Grammar, writers choose gerunds when no abstract noun phrases exist or to express
movement and activity in some kind of process. Gerunds have stronger verbal force
than noun clauses, infinitives, or abstract noun phrases. That means they put an
emphasis on some kind of action. (1995:322) This shows that the purpose of using
the gerund is to emphasize some kind of action that the writer of the SL wants the
reader to take special notice. A translator must try to make a good translation so
that the TL reader gives the same response as the SL reader in reading the text
containing a gerund in their own language.
In translating gerund, translators may use a different procedure such as shift,
modulation, or omission. Even so, translator must keep in mind to achieve a
dynamic equivalence because experts agree that translators must make the
translation natural by putting the meaning as a top priority. Nida and Taber agree
that translators have to make the message as a priority in translating a text.
Eugene A. Nida and Charles Taber, make the definition of translation
more accurate. According to them: “Translating consists in reproducing in the
receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source-language message,
first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style” (1974:12).
As mentioned above, the writer chooses gerund because there is no gerund in
the Indonesian language system. The writer chooses E-love novel as the source of
data because the writer finds many gerunds in the book and because the book is a
serial of Teen lit which is popular among teenagers nowadays.
1.2. Statement of the Problem
A question to answer in this thesis is:
1. How does the translator use to translate the gerund into Indonesian in elove
by Caroline Plaisted, the bilingual edition?
1.3. Research Objectives
The aims of this research are as follows:
1. To describe the procedures used by the translator to translate gerund from
English into Indonesian language in e-love by Caroline Plaisted, the
bilingual edition.
1.4. Limitation of the Study
The writer only analyzes the gerunds found in e-love by Caroline Plaisted
and its translation by analyzing the equivalence of gerunds and the procedures
in translating gerunds. The writer will not analyze the gerund time relationship
to the main verb.
1.5. Significance of the Study
The finding of the study are expected to be able to give both theoretical of
practical contributions to the area of translation of gerund.
Theoritically, the findings of the study are expected to be able to develop and
give obvious description about translation concerning the gerund wihch involve in
e-love by Caroline Plaisted.
Practically, the result of the study are expected to be useful for the writer
himself, teacher, and another students for supporting the previous studies of some
concern especially translation of gerund area guidance in conducting further
analysis.
1.6. Definition of the Key Terms
To avoid ambiguity and misundestanding, the writer would like to clarify the
meaning of the word used in the title of this study and some words considered as
the keywords. Those definitions are:
Translations : the process of tranferring language from the source/origin
language into the target language. Translating consist of reproducing in the
receptor language of the closest natural equivalent of the language message, first
in the term of meaning and second in term style.
Gerund: is defined as the part of the verbs that ends in – ing which has the force
of a noun as well as that of a verb and defined as participial forms used in noun
fuction.
Class shift: It occurs when an SL item is translated by means of a TL item belonging
to a different grammatical class. Class shift procedures in translating a gerund
includes adding affixes such as be-, me-, me- -kan, di- and ter-. A translator
uses class shift because he/she finds that maintaining a gerund form which is a
noun or using affixes such as pe- an, ke-an, ke- and -an is not possible or it may
make the translations sounds unnatural. By using the class shift, the form of the
gerund is mostly change into a verb.
CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LATERATURE
Translation is a process of transferring the meaning of the text from the SL to the TL.
Newmark said that translation is a craft consisting in the attempt to replace a
written message and/or statement in another language. (1981:7) Newmark conveys
his idea that translation is rendering the meaning of a text into another language in
the way that the author intended the text. (1981:5)
According to Mildred L. Larson, translation is basically a change of form.
The form of a language is the actual words, phrases, clauses, sentences,
paragraphs, etc., which are spoken or written. These forms are referred to as the
surface structure of a language. It is the structural part of language which is
actually seen in print or heard in speech. In translation the form of the source
language is replaced by the form of the receptor (target) language. Translation
consists of transferring the meaning of the source language into the receptor
language. (1984:3) The main goal of translating is finding the equivalence of the
words and makes the sentences of the text sound natural in the TL.
2.1. Formal Correspondence Versus Dynamic Equivalence
According to Nida and Taber, dynamic equivalence is prior to formal
correspondence. (1974:22) This means that translators should remember that
transferring the message is their top priority.
2.1.1. Formal correspondence
Formal correspondence is an effort to maintain the formal consistency.
According to Nida and Taber, Formal correspondence is produced by combining
the formal consistency of the length of the sentence, the classes of words and the
order of word, phrase, and clause.(1974:21-22) According to Catford, formal
correspondent is any TL category (unit, class, structure, element of structure, etc.)
which can be said to occupy, as nearly as possible, the `same’ place in the
`economy’ of the TL as the given SL category occupies in the SL.(1965:27)
2.1.2. Dynamic equivalence
Dynamic equivalence is an effort of translator to send the same message of
the SL into TL so the reader in TL has the same response as the reader in SL.
According to Nida and Taber, dynamic equivalence is defined in terms of the
degree to which the receptors of the message in the receptor language respond to it in
substantially the same manner as the receptors in the source language. This response can
never be identical, for the cultural and historical settings are too different, but there
should be a high degree of equivalence of response, or the translation will have
failed to accomplish its purpose. (1974:24)
If the translator intends to produce the same response from the readers in the
SL and the readers in the TL, the translator has to put a greater emphasis on
the dynamic equivalence concept over the formal correspondence. To
achieve this, sometimes the translator has use shift.
2.2. Procedure of Translating
A procedure is the act or manner of proceeding in any action or process.
According to Rochayah Machali, the translation procedures only focus on the
translation of word, phrase, clause, sentences not the whole text.(2000:62) The
procedures that will be used in this thesis are shift and modulation.
2.2.1. SHIFT
One of the translation procedures is shift. According to Catford, By `shifts’
we mean departures from formal correspondence in the process of going from the
SL to the TL. There are two major types of `shift’. They are level shifts and
category shifts. (1965:73)
2.2.1.1.Category Shift
According to Catford category-shifts, which are departures from formal
correspondence in translation, consist of structure-shift, class-shift, unit-shift
(rank-changes), and intra system-shift.(1965:76)
i. Structure Shift. According to Catford , A structure shift involves a
change in grammatical structure between the source language and the
target language. (1965:77)
Example: White house – ‘Gedung putih ‘
ii. Class Shift. According to Catford, class shift occurs when the
translation equivalent of a SL
item is a member of a different class from the original item.
(1965:78)
(1) SL: The neighbours were hostile to the family.
Adj.
TL: Para tetangga memusuhi keluarga tersebut. ‘
Verb
iii. Unit Shift. According to Catford, by unit-shift we mean changes
of rank-that is, departures from formal correspondence in which the
translation equivalent of a unit at one rank in the SL is a unit at a
different rank in the TL.(1965:79)
Example: These days translated into sekarang (from phrase to
word).
iv. Intra-system Shift. According to Catford, we use the term intrasystem
shift for those cases where the shift occurs internally, within a
system; that is, for those cases where SL and TL possess systems
which approximately correspond formally as to their constitution, but
when the translation involves selectionm of a non-corresponding term
in the TL system.(1965:80)
For example: Cans translated into kaleng-kaleng. Plural word in
English may be translated into reduplication in Indonesian language.
2.2.1.2. Level Shift
According to Catford in, by a shift of level we mean that a SL item at one
linguistic level has a TL translation equivalent at a different level.(1965:73)
Meanwhile, accroding to Peter Newmark, A `shift’ (Catford’s term) or
`transposition’ (Vinay and Darbelnet) is a translation procedure involving a
change in the grammar from SL to TL. Transposition is the only translation
procedure concerned with grammar, and most translators make transpositions
intuitively.
One type, the change from singular to plural, e.g. `furniture’; des
meubles; `applause’, des applaudissements; `advice’, des conseils; or in the
position of the adjective: la maison blanche, `the white house’ is automatic
and offers the translator no choice. A second type of shift is required when an
SL grammatical structure does not exist in the TL. Here there are always
options. The third type of shift is the one where literal translation is
grammatically possible but may not accord with natural usage in the TL. The
fourth type of transposition is the replacement of a virtual lexical gap by a
grammatical structure.
A gerund is included in the second type of shift. The shift is required
when an SL grammatical structure does not exist in the TL. For example, he
English gerund (`Working with you is a pleasure’) offers many choices.
The gerund can be translated by verb-noun (le travail, die Arbeit), or
a subordinate clause (‘when, if, etc. I work with you’), with a recast main clause,
or, in some languages, a noun-infinitive (e.g. das Arbeiten, which is formal
style), or an infinitive. Peter Newmark thinks that the gerund is the most
neglected of all translator’s transpositions. (1981:85-88)
2.2.2. MODULATION
In this shift theory, there is also modulation. Modulation has to do with the
changes related to the meaning shift, which happens because the perspective or
point of view changes. According to Peter Newmark, the modulation procedures
are active for passive, abstract for concrete, cause for effect, one part for another,
reversal of terms, space for time, intervals and limits and change of symbols. Of
these procedures, `active for passive’ (and vice versa) is a common transposition.
(1981:89)
2.3. Gerund
According to W. Stannard Allen in, a gerund is defined as the part of the
verbs that ends in –ing which has the force of a noun as well as that of a
verb.(1991:177) According to Marcella Frank in, gerund is defined as
participial forms used in noun function.(1972:97)
According to Helen Hoyt Schmidt, gerunds mean fulfilled actions (fulfilled
before the action of the preceding verb).
2nd action1st action
(2) The manager remembered to paying the bill
(the action was fulfilled before the action of the first, main verb)
1st action
The manager remembered to pay the bill
(the action happened after the action of the first, main verb) (308)
2.3.1. Function of gerund
According to Marcella Frank, the gerund has several functions:
Gerund phrases may perform all the functions that nouns do.
Subject of verb
(3) Her cleaning the house every day is not necessary.
Object of verb
(4) Her husband appreciates her cleaning the house every day.
Object of preposition:
In prepositional object
(5) Her husband insists on her cleaning the house every day.
In adverbial phrase
(6) By cleaning the house every day she is pleasing her husband.
Subjective complement
(7) What her husband insists on is her cleaning the house every day.
(predicate noun)
Appositive
(8) Her husband insists on one thing-her cleaning the house every
day. (314-315)
2.3.1.1. Gerund phrases as a subject
According to Marcella Frank, a gerund phrase does not occur frequently as a
subject. One of its common uses as a subject is in general statements with “be” as
the main verb.
(9) Eating a good breakfast is very wise.
(10) Taking a long walk every day is good exercise.
The gerund phrase may also function as the subject of a verb, expressing:
1. Cause-effect relationship
(11) Seing her every day made him realize how wonderful she was.
(12) His finding the error quickly saved him (=caused him to save)
many hours of extra work.
(13) The punishing of a man known to be innocent of any crime shocks
our moral consciousness and is seen as a grave injustice.
A gerund phrase subject with such a verb may have conditional meaning.
(14) Doing such a thing now (=If you do such a thing now, it) will cause you
much trouble later on.
2. Emotion
(15) Seeing overcharged for anything enrages her.
(16) Seeing her so thin and pale shocked him.
(17) Seeing her going out with another man shocked him.
It should be noted that such verbs of emotion often also denote some
degree of cause; thus “enrages her”, “shocked him” in the above sentences may be
interpreted as “causes her to become enraged”, “caused him to be shocked.”
Gerund phrases may also function as subjects of passive verbs.
(18) His keeping accurate records has never been questioned. Their
accepting the money will be considered unwise.
A gerund phrase subject sometimes appears after anticipatory it + an
adjective. Such a construction usually represents informal usage.
(19) It’s very embarrassing (,) not remembering your name.
(20) It’s incredible (,) meeting an old schoolmate so far from home.
A comma is required if the “subject” is included in the gerund
phrase-It’s strange, his doing that.
Sometimes a noun is used rather than an adjective in this construction after
anticipatory “it”.
(21) It will be a sad thing, not seeing her any more.
(22) It’s been a pleasure meeting you.
(23) It’s no use (or no good) crying over spilled milk.
No use and no need may also be preceded by expletive “there”-There’s
no use (or no need) crying over spilled milk.
Gerund phrase subjects after anticipatory “it” often have alternate
forms with infinitive phrases.
(24) It’s very embarrassing not to remember your name.
(25) It’s been a pleasure to meet you.
(26) It’s no use to cry over spilled milk. (321)
According to Helen Hoyt Schmidt in, gerunds as Subjects-Gerunds
emphasize the action, the continuous nature of an activity, and often imply something
already in progress.
(action emphasis)
(27) Running down small game was probably one of the earliest methods
of obtaining meat.
2.3.1.2. Gerund phrases as objects of verbs
According to Marcella Frank, certain verbs in English are followed
by verbals-either gerunds or infinitives-which are considered as the objects
of these verbs. Most of these verbs denote mental activity or indirect speech
and therefore require subjects that refer to human beings. Others have little
semantic content outside of indicating aspect-the beginning, duration, end
or repetition of an action; these verbs may or may not be used with subjects
denoting persons. There is less agreement that a verbal following one of these
aspect-denoting verbs is its object; actually, there is some justification for
considering a verb that expresses aspect as a quasi-auxiliary rather than as a
verb that takes an object.(1972:322)
2.3.1.3. Gerund as object of prepositions
2.3.1.3.1. Nominal Function of Prepositional Gerund Phrases
According to Marcella Frank, Any verb used as the object in a
prepositional phrase takes the form of a gerund. Most gerund phrases after
prepositions are subjectless, especially those in adverbial prepositional
phrases. Such gerund phrases function as prepositional objects of verbs. A
great many of the verbs listed under prepositional objects in the chapter on
prepositions take such gerund objects.
(28) He insisted on paying the entire bill for dinner.
(29) She often dreams about having a lot of money to spend on luxuries.
The word “to” after the following verbs is a preposition rather than the
sign of the infinitive and therefore requires a gerund after it: accustom
oneself, allude, confess, confine oneself, dedicate oneself, limit oneself, look
forward, object, plead guilty, reconcile oneself, resign oneself, resort, and revert.
(30) He objected to their entering the factory without permission.
(31) We look forward to seeing you again. (1972:324-325)
2.3.1.3.2.Adjectival Function of Prepositional Gerund Phrases
According to Marcella Frank, these adjectival constructions appearing
after nouns begin mostly with of or for. There are two main types:
a. Those prepositional gerund phrases that follow nouns derived from verbs
or adjectives.
(32) His pretense of being rich didn’t fool anyone.
(33) Their preparations for traveling abroad were very timeconsuming.
(34) He spoke of the necessity of hiring more men.
b. Those prepositional gerund phrases appearing after nouns that are nonderivation.
Such adjectival constructions are mostly adjective clause
equivalents. These phrases are sometimes interpreted as appositives to the nouns that
precede them.
(35) The money for traveling around the country (= with which they
could travel around the country) was soon used up.
(36) This is not a good way of doing it (=in which you can do
it).
(37) The time for making excuses (=in which you can make
excuses) is past.
Both types of prepositional gerund phrases may have alternate infinitive forms.
(38) He spoke of the necessity to hire more men.
(39) This is not a good way to do it.
(40) The time to make excuses is past.
2.3.1.3.3. Adverbial Function of Prepositional Gerund Phrases
(a) Prepositional gerund phrases modifying verbs
These phrases may express almost all adverbial relationships except place.
(41) After listening to the news, she started to prepare dinner.
(42) He earned the money for his tuition by working as a waiter during
the summer months.
(43) I passed him in the street without his recognizing me.
(44) In spite of traveling alone, she enjoyed her vacation
very much.
A prepositional gerund phrase may appear in all three adverbial
positions, but most frequently in initial or final position. In initial position the
“subject” of the phrase is rarely expressed, since it is understood as the
subject of the sentence. If the agent of an ‘introductory gerund’ phrase is
other than the subject of the sentence, the phrase is considered an
unacceptable “dangling” element-
(45) On looking out the window, a beautiful scene met
his eyes.
(b) Prepositional gerund phrases modifying adjectives
According to Marcella Frank, at introduces most prepositional gerund
phrases after adjectives, especially -ed participial adjectives.
He was embarrassed at hearing himself praised.
I’m disappointed at your doing such a thing. He’s very quick at adding figures.
Other prepositions introducing gerund phrases after adjectives are:
about
(46) He’s very careless about keeping appointments.
for
(47) Their funds are adequate for meeting their moderate needs.
of
(48) He’s afraid of displeasing his parents.
with
(49) They must be content with seeing each other at infrequent intervals.
by
(50) I was annoyed by the dog’s barking all night.
(This prepositional gerund phrase may also be interpreted as a modifier of the passive verb
be annoyed.) (1972:326)
2.3.2. The Usage of Gerund
There are some verbs that follow gerunds. According to Helen Hoyt
Schmidt, we often use gerunds after:
a. F active verbs (express something that really happened):
admit, appreciate, finish, legalize, miss, regret, stop
b. Two-word verbs: insist on, consist of (1995:311)
According to Helen Hoyt Schmidt, the following infinitives and gerund patterns are
arranged in order of the most common to the least common.*
Pattern 1. Subject verb infinitive object
(51) The upper-middle class aspired to join upper-class prestige clubs.
Pattern 2. Subject verb direct object infinitive
(52) People have used power and wealth to maintain their position.
(subject of infinitive)
Pattern 3. Subject verb gerund object
(53) The second step involves making sure no major changes are made.
Pattern 4. Subject verb possessive gerund object
(54) We resent their social typing of
(object of gerund) students.
Note that noun clauses (“that” clauses) are used more than infinitives and gerunds.
They occur 46 percent of the time.
Knowledge of sentence patterns can help a writer determine the choice of a gerund
or infinitive object. Although noun clauses and infinitive objects are used most of the
time, you will see gerunds used in your academic reading assignments from time to
time. (1995:309)
2.3.3. Feature Of Gerund
Gerund has some features. According to Knud Schibsbye in, the forms of the
gerund have both substantial and verbal features; both aspects of the content are
often apparent in the same context.
a. The gerund’s substantial features are as follows:
1) it may have a plural -s:
(55) Judge Jeffreys watches the hangings of those he has condemned.
2) it may have a genitive -s:
(56) We are walking for walking’s sake.
3) it may be provided with articles:
(57) There was a gentle tapping on the door.
(58) The cream of the batting had already been skimmed on Saturday.
4) it may be combined with words in the attributive-adjectival function:
(59) There was much coming and going between the embassies.
(60) He infuses the story with a warm spontaneous power
that prevents its being obvious.
(61) The b es t grouping of canvases is put in the front of the store.
(62) No complaint was made about the judge’s summing up
(63) The house was locked up and there was no answer to
one’s ringing.
(5) it may form part of compounds in the same way as a subs
(64) a walking-stick/ blotting paper;
(6) it may have the object of the implied verbal concept attached to it by of:
(65) Mrs 0.’s leaving of her life was as unobtrusive as her
living of it.
(66) The killing of the pig lasted an unconscionable time;
(7) it may be co-ordinate with substantives:
(67) Transportation or banging, that’s what he deserves
(68) Travelling and hotel accommodation is always
first class.
(8) it may be subject, object, predicative complement, and the complement of
a preposition:
(69) Speaking seemed painful to him
(70) You must give up travelling.
(71) This is playing with fire.
(72) He used to earn coppers by lighting fires for
Orthodox neighbours on the Sabbath. (1970:60)
b. The verbal character of the gerund can be seen from the fact that this
form may
(73) be combined with adverbial memb
(73) By scraping and eating skimpily, he spent four
months as a student in New York
(74) Our chance of ever knowing the truth is very slight;
(2) have an object or predicative complement:
(75) After receiving the last sacraments, he died peacefully at
12.52 a.m.
(76) She was proud of being his daughter.
(3) have a subject:
(77) She got a sense of it being her duty to do something
(78) I hate the idea of my cousin interfering.
4) be inflected in the perfect and the passive:
(79) There is a possibility of his having arrived by now.
(80) This saved him from being burt. (1970:60 – 61)
2.3.4. Gerunds time relationships to the main verb
Gerund has a time relationship to the main verb. According to Marcella
Frank, the participial forms used in gerund phrases indicate the same kind
of time as they do in participial phrases. The –ing form is neutral with
respect to time; the time that is intended often depends on the tense or the
meaning of the main verb. (1972:315)
According to Helen Hoyt Schmidt :
a. General Time Form-Gerunds used as objects of the verb express the same time
or a time future to the main verb. Subject verb active gerund objemct of the gerund
(81) The president considered changing the rules.
(Gerund = object of main verb)
subject verb passive gerund
(82) The president anticipated being elected.
(Action of gerund affects the subject.)
(83) The candidate was last seen being attacked by
press. (Action of the verb and the gerund affect the subject.)
b. General Time Form-Gerunds used as subjects or complements of the verb
express the same time or a time earlier than the main verb.
Active gerund subject verb active gerund complement
(84) Seeing is believing. (same time)
subject gerund object verb object
(85) Lowering the interest rates had two effects.
(Action of the gerund is earlier than the main verb.)
passive gerund subject verb passive gerund complement
(86) Being seen meant becoming recognized. (same time)
c. Past Time-Perfect Gerund Form expresses an action, earlier than the main
verb.
Subject, verb, active gerund, object of gerund
(87) The president forgot having changed the rules.
(perfect gerund = object of main verb)
Subject verb passive: perfect gerund
(88) The candidate ,understood not having been elected as
president. (Action of gerund affects the subject.) (1972:305)
2.3.5. Affixation
Affixation is very useful in translating gerund. According to Gorys Keraf, there are two
kinds of affixes.
a. Inflectional Affix
Inflectional Affix does not change the class of the word after the word is given
affixes such as me-, di- and ter-.
b. Derivational Affixes
Derivational affixes changes the class of the word after the word is given affixes
such as ke- -an, pe- -an, pe- and -an. (1990:121)
In conclusion, the features and the usage of the gerund help us to identify the
gerund or to distinguish between gerund and the other suffix -ing such as present
participle and adjective in the process of identifying gerund in the book. According
to Knud Schibsbye, a word with suffix -ing can act as:
1. a substantive (noun or others that functions as a noun)
(89) I gave him my blessing
(90) a street of silent-looking dwellings;
2. a gerund
(91) Banging criminals is no cure.
(92) I am proud of being your wife.
(93) Talking so rudely is provoking.
3. the present participle
(94) A girl smiling her sweetest
(95) coming up to me he said, `Good morning’
(96) What are you looking at?
4. an adjective
(97) he is always willing
(98) He is a strapping fellow
(99) He is the cunninger of the two.
5. a preposition
(100) I will communicate with you concerning your friend.
(101) I have an advantageous offer to make him regarding the
cattle .
(102) Your facts are very valuable, specially as touching (this is
archaic) your own stay in Crete. (1970:57)
In addition to distinguish between gerund and the other suffix -ing, we must
remember that the gerunds will always answer the noun question, what? (since
they name an action or a fact, they don’t answer to who?).
fact:
(103) Your driving a car to New York in your condition disturbs
me greatly.
action:
(104) Your driving a car to New York took longer than I expected.
The writer shall double check the gerunds by testing other nouns or
pronouns in its place. Then in the analysis, the writer will divide the gerunds
based on the function of the gerund. According to Marcella Frank, gerund has
several functions: subject of verb, object of verb, object of preposition (In
prepositional object or in adverbial phrase), subjective complement, and
appositive.
Meanwhile, Randolph Quirk, refers the gerund as the verb of nominal -ing
clauses (or more fully, nominal -ing participle clauses) and sometimes are called
gerundive which has a function as:
1. subject:
(105) Watching television keeps them out of mischief.
2. direct object:
(106) He enjoys playing practical jokes.
3. subject complement:
(107) Her first job had been selling computers.
4. appositive:
(108) His current research, investigating attitudes to racial stereotypes,
takes up most of his time.
5. adjectival complementation:
(109) They are busy preparing a barbecue.
6. prepositional complement :
(110) I’m responsible for drawing up the budget. (1985:1063)
The difference between the two is that most of the terms that Marcella
Frank and Randolph Quirk uses are different which can be seen from the table.
Table 1 Different term used by Marcella Frank and Randolph Quirk
Marcella Frank use the term Randolph Quirk use the term
subject of verb
object of verb
object of preposition
In prepositional object
In adverbial phrase
subjective complement
appositive
Subject
direct object
prepositional complement

subject complement
appositive
After that, the gerunds will be analyzed by their translating procedure.
The procedures in translating gerunds are divided into:
Shift which consists of class shift and unit shift
Non Shift consists of non class shift, loan word and omission.
2.4. Previous Study
The following are the result of previous study that is relevant to this
translation of gerund.
Hidayatullah (2007) who focused his study on analysis in translation of
gerund in the book entitled “40 Lifes” in his study, he investigated the kinds and
types of gerund translation used in that book. He also analyze the gerund time
relationship to the main verb.
By studying the previous study mentioned above, the writer would like to
discuss the equivalence of gerunds and procedures in translating gerunds, not to
analyze the gerund time relationship to the main verb.
CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHOD
This chapter illustrates methodology used in this research. It deals with the
research design, data instrument, data source, data collection, and data analysis.
3.1. Research Design
This research uses a descriptive qualitative because it gives a
description of the gerund and its translation into Indonesian. The writer
analyzes the data by describing what affixes the translator uses in translating
gerunds and what kind of shift the translator uses in translating gerunds.
3.2. Data Instrument
In this research the writer as the key or main instrument spends great deal of
time reading and understanding the contents that are found in The e-love novel by
Caroline Plaisted and its translations to classify and describe the procedures used
by the translator to translate gerund from English into Indonesian Language. .
3.3. Data Source
The source of the data of the study is the e-love novel by Caroline Plaisted
the bilingual edition, wich was first published 2004 by Gramedia in Jakarta and it
is translated by Sutanty Lesmana.. Moreover, the writer would like to analyzes
126 datas in sentences, comprising gerunds and its translation from the
novel.
3.4. Data Collection
After reading the material comprehensively, the writer underlines
the sentences that contain gerunds and its translations into Indonesian. Those
sentences are entered into datas. One data contains a sentence in the source
language and the translation in the target language.
3.5. Data analysis
After the data had been collected from the e-love novel, they were analyzed
in the following steps: first of all the writer categorizes the datas based on the
functions of the gerund (Object of Preposition, Object of Verb and Subject). Then
he analyzes the data by focusing what procedure the translator uses to translate
the gerunds and making a conclusion of the analysis.