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The translation of Gerund In Carolin Plaisted Novel ELOVE And Its Translation By Sutanti Lesmana

ABSTRACT

Suci Gianti, Siti, 2011 : The translation of Gerund In Carolin Plaisted Novel ELOVE
And Its Translation By Sutanti Lesmana
Advisor :
Key word : Translation, Gerund, Class shift

One of the problems that translators need to solve in translating a text
into Indonesian language is gerund because there is no gerund system in
Indonesian. Gerund has a noun form but it may have a verbal meaning. In fact,
mostly gerund has a verbal meaning. This system does not exist in Indonesian
language.
The aims of this research are to describe the equivalence of gerund from
English into Indonesian language and to describe the procedures used by
the translator in translating gerund into Indonesian language in E-love by
Caroline Plaisted bilingual edition.
In addition, this research tends to be descriptive qualitative research
since it does not deal with number at all, which describes about the gerund and
the translation into indonesian used in E-love by caroline Plaisted bilingual
edition.
In addition, the gerunds in E-love are categorized based on the functions,
they are object of preposition, object of verb and subject. Then they are focused
on what procedures the translator uses to translate the gerunds. The procedures
in translating gerunds are divided into; 1. A shift which consists of class shift and
unit shift. 2. A non shift which consist of non class shift and omission.
After analyzing the data, the writer’s first conclusion is that gerund is
usually translated into either a verb or a noun. Mostly gerunds are translated
into a verb with the prefix Me+V. The writer’s second conclusion is that
gerunds are translated either by shift or non shift. Mostly gerunds are translated
by class shift.
At last, the writer suggests and has big expectation to the next researcher
to be able to explore the procedures of gerund translation deeply. The writer
realizes there are many weaknesses in his study, especially in the occurrence of
gerund translation and its parts are difficult to be found.

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
1.1. Background of the Study
One of the problems that translators need to solve in translating a text is
the gerund because there is no gerund system in the Indonesian language.
According to W. Stannard Allen, a gerund is defined as the part of a verb that
ends in –ing which has the force of a noun as well as that of a verb. (1991:177)
The reason why the gerund system does not exist in the Indonesian language is
that the concept of gerund is different from nominalization in the Indonesian
language. According to Gorys Keraf, nominalization is derived from a verb or an
adjective by adding affixes such as pe+V, pe-+V+ -an, ke-+V+ -an and V+ -an.
(1990:60-61) A Gerund is derived from a verb by adding the participle -ing.
Besides that, nominalization only has a substantial meaning. The gerund,
however, has a verbal meaning or a substantial meaning. According to Wiliting
, the gerund has a force of a noun if the gerund has a substantial feature such as
having an article in front of it and having a plural noun. When a gerund has a
force of a noun, it has a substantial meaning. Substantive is a word that can
function as a noun such as a gerund, an infinitive and a noun. The gerund has a
force of a verb if the gerund has a verbal feature such as having its own object,
and having inflected in the perfect and the passive. When a gerund has a force
of a verb, it has a verbal meaning. (1983:32-33) When this is the case, gerund
becomes a hybrid because it has a noun form but it has a verbal meaning.
The translator may try to maintain the form of a gerund which is a
noun by adding affixes such as pe- an, ke-an, pe- and -an. This is one of the
procedures in translating the gerund into the Indonesian language. However,
in practice, a translator has to use other procedures to achieve a dynamic
equivalence where the meaning is the most important factor to transfer and
not the noun form. The translator may use a class shift by adding affixes
such as be-, me-, me- -kan, di- and ter- because he or she finds that using
affixes such as pe- an, ke-an, pe- and -an is not possible or it will make the
translation sounds unnatural. The example is that the sentence “I could not
bear thinking about it.” is translated “Aku tidak tahan memikirkannya.” The
translator can not replace the affix me-+V+-kan with the affix pe- an, ke-an,
pe- and –an. The sentence will sound unnatural if the translator replaces it.
This is because there is not a noun that has a verbal meaning in Indonesian.
This system does not exist in Indonesian language. According to Peter
Newmark, unnatural translation is marked by interference, primarily from the
SL text, possibly from a third language known to the translator including his own,
if it is not the target language. He also states that one of the things that we must
pay attention to is the gerund. (1981:27)
According to Peter Newmark in, translating a gerund often uses
transpositions. (1981:88) Transposition illustrates a frequent tension between
grammar and stress. According to Helen Hoyt Schmidt in Advanced English
Grammar, writers choose gerunds when no abstract noun phrases exist or to express
movement and activity in some kind of process. Gerunds have stronger verbal force
than noun clauses, infinitives, or abstract noun phrases. That means they put an
emphasis on some kind of action. (1995:322) This shows that the purpose of using
the gerund is to emphasize some kind of action that the writer of the SL wants the
reader to take special notice. A translator must try to make a good translation so
that the TL reader gives the same response as the SL reader in reading the text
containing a gerund in their own language.
In translating gerund, translators may use a different procedure such as shift,
modulation, or omission. Even so, translator must keep in mind to achieve a
dynamic equivalence because experts agree that translators must make the
translation natural by putting the meaning as a top priority. Nida and Taber agree
that translators have to make the message as a priority in translating a text.
Eugene A. Nida and Charles Taber, make the definition of translation
more accurate. According to them: “Translating consists in reproducing in the
receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source-language message,
first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style” (1974:12).
As mentioned above, the writer chooses gerund because there is no gerund in
the Indonesian language system. The writer chooses E-love novel as the source of
data because the writer finds many gerunds in the book and because the book is a
serial of Teen lit which is popular among teenagers nowadays.
1.2. Statement of the Problem
A question to answer in this thesis is:
1. How does the translator use to translate the gerund into Indonesian in elove
by Caroline Plaisted, the bilingual edition?
1.3. Research Objectives
The aims of this research are as follows:
1. To describe the procedures used by the translator to translate gerund from
English into Indonesian language in e-love by Caroline Plaisted, the
bilingual edition.
1.4. Limitation of the Study
The writer only analyzes the gerunds found in e-love by Caroline Plaisted
and its translation by analyzing the equivalence of gerunds and the procedures
in translating gerunds. The writer will not analyze the gerund time relationship
to the main verb.
1.5. Significance of the Study
The finding of the study are expected to be able to give both theoretical of
practical contributions to the area of translation of gerund.
Theoritically, the findings of the study are expected to be able to develop and
give obvious description about translation concerning the gerund wihch involve in
e-love by Caroline Plaisted.
Practically, the result of the study are expected to be useful for the writer
himself, teacher, and another students for supporting the previous studies of some
concern especially translation of gerund area guidance in conducting further
analysis.
1.6. Definition of the Key Terms
To avoid ambiguity and misundestanding, the writer would like to clarify the
meaning of the word used in the title of this study and some words considered as
the keywords. Those definitions are:
Translations : the process of tranferring language from the source/origin
language into the target language. Translating consist of reproducing in the
receptor language of the closest natural equivalent of the language message, first
in the term of meaning and second in term style.
Gerund: is defined as the part of the verbs that ends in – ing which has the force
of a noun as well as that of a verb and defined as participial forms used in noun
fuction.
Class shift: It occurs when an SL item is translated by means of a TL item belonging
to a different grammatical class. Class shift procedures in translating a gerund
includes adding affixes such as be-, me-, me- -kan, di- and ter-. A translator
uses class shift because he/she finds that maintaining a gerund form which is a
noun or using affixes such as pe- an, ke-an, ke- and -an is not possible or it may
make the translations sounds unnatural. By using the class shift, the form of the
gerund is mostly change into a verb.
CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LATERATURE
Translation is a process of transferring the meaning of the text from the SL to the TL.
Newmark said that translation is a craft consisting in the attempt to replace a
written message and/or statement in another language. (1981:7) Newmark conveys
his idea that translation is rendering the meaning of a text into another language in
the way that the author intended the text. (1981:5)
According to Mildred L. Larson, translation is basically a change of form.
The form of a language is the actual words, phrases, clauses, sentences,
paragraphs, etc., which are spoken or written. These forms are referred to as the
surface structure of a language. It is the structural part of language which is
actually seen in print or heard in speech. In translation the form of the source
language is replaced by the form of the receptor (target) language. Translation
consists of transferring the meaning of the source language into the receptor
language. (1984:3) The main goal of translating is finding the equivalence of the
words and makes the sentences of the text sound natural in the TL.
2.1. Formal Correspondence Versus Dynamic Equivalence
According to Nida and Taber, dynamic equivalence is prior to formal
correspondence. (1974:22) This means that translators should remember that
transferring the message is their top priority.
2.1.1. Formal correspondence
Formal correspondence is an effort to maintain the formal consistency.
According to Nida and Taber, Formal correspondence is produced by combining
the formal consistency of the length of the sentence, the classes of words and the
order of word, phrase, and clause.(1974:21-22) According to Catford, formal
correspondent is any TL category (unit, class, structure, element of structure, etc.)
which can be said to occupy, as nearly as possible, the `same’ place in the
`economy’ of the TL as the given SL category occupies in the SL.(1965:27)
2.1.2. Dynamic equivalence
Dynamic equivalence is an effort of translator to send the same message of
the SL into TL so the reader in TL has the same response as the reader in SL.
According to Nida and Taber, dynamic equivalence is defined in terms of the
degree to which the receptors of the message in the receptor language respond to it in
substantially the same manner as the receptors in the source language. This response can
never be identical, for the cultural and historical settings are too different, but there
should be a high degree of equivalence of response, or the translation will have
failed to accomplish its purpose. (1974:24)
If the translator intends to produce the same response from the readers in the
SL and the readers in the TL, the translator has to put a greater emphasis on
the dynamic equivalence concept over the formal correspondence. To
achieve this, sometimes the translator has use shift.
2.2. Procedure of Translating
A procedure is the act or manner of proceeding in any action or process.
According to Rochayah Machali, the translation procedures only focus on the
translation of word, phrase, clause, sentences not the whole text.(2000:62) The
procedures that will be used in this thesis are shift and modulation.
2.2.1. SHIFT
One of the translation procedures is shift. According to Catford, By `shifts’
we mean departures from formal correspondence in the process of going from the
SL to the TL. There are two major types of `shift’. They are level shifts and
category shifts. (1965:73)
2.2.1.1.Category Shift
According to Catford category-shifts, which are departures from formal
correspondence in translation, consist of structure-shift, class-shift, unit-shift
(rank-changes), and intra system-shift.(1965:76)
i. Structure Shift. According to Catford , A structure shift involves a
change in grammatical structure between the source language and the
target language. (1965:77)
Example: White house – ‘Gedung putih ‘
ii. Class Shift. According to Catford, class shift occurs when the
translation equivalent of a SL
item is a member of a different class from the original item.
(1965:78)
(1) SL: The neighbours were hostile to the family.
Adj.
TL: Para tetangga memusuhi keluarga tersebut. ‘
Verb
iii. Unit Shift. According to Catford, by unit-shift we mean changes
of rank-that is, departures from formal correspondence in which the
translation equivalent of a unit at one rank in the SL is a unit at a
different rank in the TL.(1965:79)
Example: These days translated into sekarang (from phrase to
word).
iv. Intra-system Shift. According to Catford, we use the term intrasystem
shift for those cases where the shift occurs internally, within a
system; that is, for those cases where SL and TL possess systems
which approximately correspond formally as to their constitution, but
when the translation involves selectionm of a non-corresponding term
in the TL system.(1965:80)
For example: Cans translated into kaleng-kaleng. Plural word in
English may be translated into reduplication in Indonesian language.
2.2.1.2. Level Shift
According to Catford in, by a shift of level we mean that a SL item at one
linguistic level has a TL translation equivalent at a different level.(1965:73)
Meanwhile, accroding to Peter Newmark, A `shift’ (Catford’s term) or
`transposition’ (Vinay and Darbelnet) is a translation procedure involving a
change in the grammar from SL to TL. Transposition is the only translation
procedure concerned with grammar, and most translators make transpositions
intuitively.
One type, the change from singular to plural, e.g. `furniture’; des
meubles; `applause’, des applaudissements; `advice’, des conseils; or in the
position of the adjective: la maison blanche, `the white house’ is automatic
and offers the translator no choice. A second type of shift is required when an
SL grammatical structure does not exist in the TL. Here there are always
options. The third type of shift is the one where literal translation is
grammatically possible but may not accord with natural usage in the TL. The
fourth type of transposition is the replacement of a virtual lexical gap by a
grammatical structure.
A gerund is included in the second type of shift. The shift is required
when an SL grammatical structure does not exist in the TL. For example, he
English gerund (`Working with you is a pleasure’) offers many choices.
The gerund can be translated by verb-noun (le travail, die Arbeit), or
a subordinate clause (‘when, if, etc. I work with you’), with a recast main clause,
or, in some languages, a noun-infinitive (e.g. das Arbeiten, which is formal
style), or an infinitive. Peter Newmark thinks that the gerund is the most
neglected of all translator’s transpositions. (1981:85-88)
2.2.2. MODULATION
In this shift theory, there is also modulation. Modulation has to do with the
changes related to the meaning shift, which happens because the perspective or
point of view changes. According to Peter Newmark, the modulation procedures
are active for passive, abstract for concrete, cause for effect, one part for another,
reversal of terms, space for time, intervals and limits and change of symbols. Of
these procedures, `active for passive’ (and vice versa) is a common transposition.
(1981:89)
2.3. Gerund
According to W. Stannard Allen in, a gerund is defined as the part of the
verbs that ends in –ing which has the force of a noun as well as that of a
verb.(1991:177) According to Marcella Frank in, gerund is defined as
participial forms used in noun function.(1972:97)
According to Helen Hoyt Schmidt, gerunds mean fulfilled actions (fulfilled
before the action of the preceding verb).
2nd action1st action
(2) The manager remembered to paying the bill
(the action was fulfilled before the action of the first, main verb)
1st action
The manager remembered to pay the bill
(the action happened after the action of the first, main verb) (308)
2.3.1. Function of gerund
According to Marcella Frank, the gerund has several functions:
Gerund phrases may perform all the functions that nouns do.
Subject of verb
(3) Her cleaning the house every day is not necessary.
Object of verb
(4) Her husband appreciates her cleaning the house every day.
Object of preposition:
In prepositional object
(5) Her husband insists on her cleaning the house every day.
In adverbial phrase
(6) By cleaning the house every day she is pleasing her husband.
Subjective complement
(7) What her husband insists on is her cleaning the house every day.
(predicate noun)
Appositive
(8) Her husband insists on one thing-her cleaning the house every
day. (314-315)
2.3.1.1. Gerund phrases as a subject
According to Marcella Frank, a gerund phrase does not occur frequently as a
subject. One of its common uses as a subject is in general statements with “be” as
the main verb.
(9) Eating a good breakfast is very wise.
(10) Taking a long walk every day is good exercise.
The gerund phrase may also function as the subject of a verb, expressing:
1. Cause-effect relationship
(11) Seing her every day made him realize how wonderful she was.
(12) His finding the error quickly saved him (=caused him to save)
many hours of extra work.
(13) The punishing of a man known to be innocent of any crime shocks
our moral consciousness and is seen as a grave injustice.
A gerund phrase subject with such a verb may have conditional meaning.
(14) Doing such a thing now (=If you do such a thing now, it) will cause you
much trouble later on.
2. Emotion
(15) Seeing overcharged for anything enrages her.
(16) Seeing her so thin and pale shocked him.
(17) Seeing her going out with another man shocked him.
It should be noted that such verbs of emotion often also denote some
degree of cause; thus “enrages her”, “shocked him” in the above sentences may be
interpreted as “causes her to become enraged”, “caused him to be shocked.”
Gerund phrases may also function as subjects of passive verbs.
(18) His keeping accurate records has never been questioned. Their
accepting the money will be considered unwise.
A gerund phrase subject sometimes appears after anticipatory it + an
adjective. Such a construction usually represents informal usage.
(19) It’s very embarrassing (,) not remembering your name.
(20) It’s incredible (,) meeting an old schoolmate so far from home.
A comma is required if the “subject” is included in the gerund
phrase-It’s strange, his doing that.
Sometimes a noun is used rather than an adjective in this construction after
anticipatory “it”.
(21) It will be a sad thing, not seeing her any more.
(22) It’s been a pleasure meeting you.
(23) It’s no use (or no good) crying over spilled milk.
No use and no need may also be preceded by expletive “there”-There’s
no use (or no need) crying over spilled milk.
Gerund phrase subjects after anticipatory “it” often have alternate
forms with infinitive phrases.
(24) It’s very embarrassing not to remember your name.
(25) It’s been a pleasure to meet you.
(26) It’s no use to cry over spilled milk. (321)
According to Helen Hoyt Schmidt in, gerunds as Subjects-Gerunds
emphasize the action, the continuous nature of an activity, and often imply something
already in progress.
(action emphasis)
(27) Running down small game was probably one of the earliest methods
of obtaining meat.
2.3.1.2. Gerund phrases as objects of verbs
According to Marcella Frank, certain verbs in English are followed
by verbals-either gerunds or infinitives-which are considered as the objects
of these verbs. Most of these verbs denote mental activity or indirect speech
and therefore require subjects that refer to human beings. Others have little
semantic content outside of indicating aspect-the beginning, duration, end
or repetition of an action; these verbs may or may not be used with subjects
denoting persons. There is less agreement that a verbal following one of these
aspect-denoting verbs is its object; actually, there is some justification for
considering a verb that expresses aspect as a quasi-auxiliary rather than as a
verb that takes an object.(1972:322)
2.3.1.3. Gerund as object of prepositions
2.3.1.3.1. Nominal Function of Prepositional Gerund Phrases
According to Marcella Frank, Any verb used as the object in a
prepositional phrase takes the form of a gerund. Most gerund phrases after
prepositions are subjectless, especially those in adverbial prepositional
phrases. Such gerund phrases function as prepositional objects of verbs. A
great many of the verbs listed under prepositional objects in the chapter on
prepositions take such gerund objects.
(28) He insisted on paying the entire bill for dinner.
(29) She often dreams about having a lot of money to spend on luxuries.
The word “to” after the following verbs is a preposition rather than the
sign of the infinitive and therefore requires a gerund after it: accustom
oneself, allude, confess, confine oneself, dedicate oneself, limit oneself, look
forward, object, plead guilty, reconcile oneself, resign oneself, resort, and revert.
(30) He objected to their entering the factory without permission.
(31) We look forward to seeing you again. (1972:324-325)
2.3.1.3.2.Adjectival Function of Prepositional Gerund Phrases
According to Marcella Frank, these adjectival constructions appearing
after nouns begin mostly with of or for. There are two main types:
a. Those prepositional gerund phrases that follow nouns derived from verbs
or adjectives.
(32) His pretense of being rich didn’t fool anyone.
(33) Their preparations for traveling abroad were very timeconsuming.
(34) He spoke of the necessity of hiring more men.
b. Those prepositional gerund phrases appearing after nouns that are nonderivation.
Such adjectival constructions are mostly adjective clause
equivalents. These phrases are sometimes interpreted as appositives to the nouns that
precede them.
(35) The money for traveling around the country (= with which they
could travel around the country) was soon used up.
(36) This is not a good way of doing it (=in which you can do
it).
(37) The time for making excuses (=in which you can make
excuses) is past.
Both types of prepositional gerund phrases may have alternate infinitive forms.
(38) He spoke of the necessity to hire more men.
(39) This is not a good way to do it.
(40) The time to make excuses is past.
2.3.1.3.3. Adverbial Function of Prepositional Gerund Phrases
(a) Prepositional gerund phrases modifying verbs
These phrases may express almost all adverbial relationships except place.
(41) After listening to the news, she started to prepare dinner.
(42) He earned the money for his tuition by working as a waiter during
the summer months.
(43) I passed him in the street without his recognizing me.
(44) In spite of traveling alone, she enjoyed her vacation
very much.
A prepositional gerund phrase may appear in all three adverbial
positions, but most frequently in initial or final position. In initial position the
“subject” of the phrase is rarely expressed, since it is understood as the
subject of the sentence. If the agent of an ‘introductory gerund’ phrase is
other than the subject of the sentence, the phrase is considered an
unacceptable “dangling” element-
(45) On looking out the window, a beautiful scene met
his eyes.
(b) Prepositional gerund phrases modifying adjectives
According to Marcella Frank, at introduces most prepositional gerund
phrases after adjectives, especially -ed participial adjectives.
He was embarrassed at hearing himself praised.
I’m disappointed at your doing such a thing. He’s very quick at adding figures.
Other prepositions introducing gerund phrases after adjectives are:
about
(46) He’s very careless about keeping appointments.
for
(47) Their funds are adequate for meeting their moderate needs.
of
(48) He’s afraid of displeasing his parents.
with
(49) They must be content with seeing each other at infrequent intervals.
by
(50) I was annoyed by the dog’s barking all night.
(This prepositional gerund phrase may also be interpreted as a modifier of the passive verb
be annoyed.) (1972:326)
2.3.2. The Usage of Gerund
There are some verbs that follow gerunds. According to Helen Hoyt
Schmidt, we often use gerunds after:
a. F active verbs (express something that really happened):
admit, appreciate, finish, legalize, miss, regret, stop
b. Two-word verbs: insist on, consist of (1995:311)
According to Helen Hoyt Schmidt, the following infinitives and gerund patterns are
arranged in order of the most common to the least common.*
Pattern 1. Subject verb infinitive object
(51) The upper-middle class aspired to join upper-class prestige clubs.
Pattern 2. Subject verb direct object infinitive
(52) People have used power and wealth to maintain their position.
(subject of infinitive)
Pattern 3. Subject verb gerund object
(53) The second step involves making sure no major changes are made.
Pattern 4. Subject verb possessive gerund object
(54) We resent their social typing of
(object of gerund) students.
Note that noun clauses (“that” clauses) are used more than infinitives and gerunds.
They occur 46 percent of the time.
Knowledge of sentence patterns can help a writer determine the choice of a gerund
or infinitive object. Although noun clauses and infinitive objects are used most of the
time, you will see gerunds used in your academic reading assignments from time to
time. (1995:309)
2.3.3. Feature Of Gerund
Gerund has some features. According to Knud Schibsbye in, the forms of the
gerund have both substantial and verbal features; both aspects of the content are
often apparent in the same context.
a. The gerund’s substantial features are as follows:
1) it may have a plural -s:
(55) Judge Jeffreys watches the hangings of those he has condemned.
2) it may have a genitive -s:
(56) We are walking for walking’s sake.
3) it may be provided with articles:
(57) There was a gentle tapping on the door.
(58) The cream of the batting had already been skimmed on Saturday.
4) it may be combined with words in the attributive-adjectival function:
(59) There was much coming and going between the embassies.
(60) He infuses the story with a warm spontaneous power
that prevents its being obvious.
(61) The b es t grouping of canvases is put in the front of the store.
(62) No complaint was made about the judge’s summing up
(63) The house was locked up and there was no answer to
one’s ringing.
(5) it may form part of compounds in the same way as a subs
(64) a walking-stick/ blotting paper;
(6) it may have the object of the implied verbal concept attached to it by of:
(65) Mrs 0.’s leaving of her life was as unobtrusive as her
living of it.
(66) The killing of the pig lasted an unconscionable time;
(7) it may be co-ordinate with substantives:
(67) Transportation or banging, that’s what he deserves
(68) Travelling and hotel accommodation is always
first class.
(8) it may be subject, object, predicative complement, and the complement of
a preposition:
(69) Speaking seemed painful to him
(70) You must give up travelling.
(71) This is playing with fire.
(72) He used to earn coppers by lighting fires for
Orthodox neighbours on the Sabbath. (1970:60)
b. The verbal character of the gerund can be seen from the fact that this
form may
(73) be combined with adverbial memb
(73) By scraping and eating skimpily, he spent four
months as a student in New York
(74) Our chance of ever knowing the truth is very slight;
(2) have an object or predicative complement:
(75) After receiving the last sacraments, he died peacefully at
12.52 a.m.
(76) She was proud of being his daughter.
(3) have a subject:
(77) She got a sense of it being her duty to do something
(78) I hate the idea of my cousin interfering.
4) be inflected in the perfect and the passive:
(79) There is a possibility of his having arrived by now.
(80) This saved him from being burt. (1970:60 – 61)
2.3.4. Gerunds time relationships to the main verb
Gerund has a time relationship to the main verb. According to Marcella
Frank, the participial forms used in gerund phrases indicate the same kind
of time as they do in participial phrases. The –ing form is neutral with
respect to time; the time that is intended often depends on the tense or the
meaning of the main verb. (1972:315)
According to Helen Hoyt Schmidt :
a. General Time Form-Gerunds used as objects of the verb express the same time
or a time future to the main verb. Subject verb active gerund objemct of the gerund
(81) The president considered changing the rules.
(Gerund = object of main verb)
subject verb passive gerund
(82) The president anticipated being elected.
(Action of gerund affects the subject.)
(83) The candidate was last seen being attacked by
press. (Action of the verb and the gerund affect the subject.)
b. General Time Form-Gerunds used as subjects or complements of the verb
express the same time or a time earlier than the main verb.
Active gerund subject verb active gerund complement
(84) Seeing is believing. (same time)
subject gerund object verb object
(85) Lowering the interest rates had two effects.
(Action of the gerund is earlier than the main verb.)
passive gerund subject verb passive gerund complement
(86) Being seen meant becoming recognized. (same time)
c. Past Time-Perfect Gerund Form expresses an action, earlier than the main
verb.
Subject, verb, active gerund, object of gerund
(87) The president forgot having changed the rules.
(perfect gerund = object of main verb)
Subject verb passive: perfect gerund
(88) The candidate ,understood not having been elected as
president. (Action of gerund affects the subject.) (1972:305)
2.3.5. Affixation
Affixation is very useful in translating gerund. According to Gorys Keraf, there are two
kinds of affixes.
a. Inflectional Affix
Inflectional Affix does not change the class of the word after the word is given
affixes such as me-, di- and ter-.
b. Derivational Affixes
Derivational affixes changes the class of the word after the word is given affixes
such as ke- -an, pe- -an, pe- and -an. (1990:121)
In conclusion, the features and the usage of the gerund help us to identify the
gerund or to distinguish between gerund and the other suffix -ing such as present
participle and adjective in the process of identifying gerund in the book. According
to Knud Schibsbye, a word with suffix -ing can act as:
1. a substantive (noun or others that functions as a noun)
(89) I gave him my blessing
(90) a street of silent-looking dwellings;
2. a gerund
(91) Banging criminals is no cure.
(92) I am proud of being your wife.
(93) Talking so rudely is provoking.
3. the present participle
(94) A girl smiling her sweetest
(95) coming up to me he said, `Good morning’
(96) What are you looking at?
4. an adjective
(97) he is always willing
(98) He is a strapping fellow
(99) He is the cunninger of the two.
5. a preposition
(100) I will communicate with you concerning your friend.
(101) I have an advantageous offer to make him regarding the
cattle .
(102) Your facts are very valuable, specially as touching (this is
archaic) your own stay in Crete. (1970:57)
In addition to distinguish between gerund and the other suffix -ing, we must
remember that the gerunds will always answer the noun question, what? (since
they name an action or a fact, they don’t answer to who?).
fact:
(103) Your driving a car to New York in your condition disturbs
me greatly.
action:
(104) Your driving a car to New York took longer than I expected.
The writer shall double check the gerunds by testing other nouns or
pronouns in its place. Then in the analysis, the writer will divide the gerunds
based on the function of the gerund. According to Marcella Frank, gerund has
several functions: subject of verb, object of verb, object of preposition (In
prepositional object or in adverbial phrase), subjective complement, and
appositive.
Meanwhile, Randolph Quirk, refers the gerund as the verb of nominal -ing
clauses (or more fully, nominal -ing participle clauses) and sometimes are called
gerundive which has a function as:
1. subject:
(105) Watching television keeps them out of mischief.
2. direct object:
(106) He enjoys playing practical jokes.
3. subject complement:
(107) Her first job had been selling computers.
4. appositive:
(108) His current research, investigating attitudes to racial stereotypes,
takes up most of his time.
5. adjectival complementation:
(109) They are busy preparing a barbecue.
6. prepositional complement :
(110) I’m responsible for drawing up the budget. (1985:1063)
The difference between the two is that most of the terms that Marcella
Frank and Randolph Quirk uses are different which can be seen from the table.
Table 1 Different term used by Marcella Frank and Randolph Quirk
Marcella Frank use the term Randolph Quirk use the term
subject of verb
object of verb
object of preposition
In prepositional object
In adverbial phrase
subjective complement
appositive
Subject
direct object
prepositional complement

subject complement
appositive
After that, the gerunds will be analyzed by their translating procedure.
The procedures in translating gerunds are divided into:
Shift which consists of class shift and unit shift
Non Shift consists of non class shift, loan word and omission.
2.4. Previous Study
The following are the result of previous study that is relevant to this
translation of gerund.
Hidayatullah (2007) who focused his study on analysis in translation of
gerund in the book entitled “40 Lifes” in his study, he investigated the kinds and
types of gerund translation used in that book. He also analyze the gerund time
relationship to the main verb.
By studying the previous study mentioned above, the writer would like to
discuss the equivalence of gerunds and procedures in translating gerunds, not to
analyze the gerund time relationship to the main verb.
CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHOD
This chapter illustrates methodology used in this research. It deals with the
research design, data instrument, data source, data collection, and data analysis.
3.1. Research Design
This research uses a descriptive qualitative because it gives a
description of the gerund and its translation into Indonesian. The writer
analyzes the data by describing what affixes the translator uses in translating
gerunds and what kind of shift the translator uses in translating gerunds.
3.2. Data Instrument
In this research the writer as the key or main instrument spends great deal of
time reading and understanding the contents that are found in The e-love novel by
Caroline Plaisted and its translations to classify and describe the procedures used
by the translator to translate gerund from English into Indonesian Language. .
3.3. Data Source
The source of the data of the study is the e-love novel by Caroline Plaisted
the bilingual edition, wich was first published 2004 by Gramedia in Jakarta and it
is translated by Sutanty Lesmana.. Moreover, the writer would like to analyzes
126 datas in sentences, comprising gerunds and its translation from the
novel.
3.4. Data Collection
After reading the material comprehensively, the writer underlines
the sentences that contain gerunds and its translations into Indonesian. Those
sentences are entered into datas. One data contains a sentence in the source
language and the translation in the target language.
3.5. Data analysis
After the data had been collected from the e-love novel, they were analyzed
in the following steps: first of all the writer categorizes the datas based on the
functions of the gerund (Object of Preposition, Object of Verb and Subject). Then
he analyzes the data by focusing what procedure the translator uses to translate
the gerunds and making a conclusion of the analysis.

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