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Name  : Budiyono

Class   : 2008b

NPM   : 1106080425




Kasan, 2010. A Study on the Hester Prynne’s Emotional Expression of Nathaniel Hawthorne’s novel “The Scarlet Letter” .Thesis, English Department, Faculty of language and letter, Kanjuruhan University of Malang.

Advisor (1) Hj. Like Raskova. O, M.Ed ; (2) Maria Cholifah, Ss. Mpd


Key words:  novel, emotional expression of Hester Prynne, the scarlet letter.


Novel is prose part of literary works that presents the imaginations that explode the hidden fact inside the text.  A beautify of the novel also shows the truth about human life that combined with esthetic. Therefore, the writer takes a novel as an object of this study.

During the people life, humans have experiences, both good and bad. It does not always deal with something that happened personally, but it may be a part of the experience itself. One part of experiences is human problem. In this study, the writer focused on analysis on the Hester Prynne’s emotional expression of Nathaniel Hawthorne’s novel “The Scarlet Letter”.

From this study, the writer knew some problems faced by some characters on this novel, which are important aspect of literary works. For supporting the purpose of the study, the writer uses many sources they are: novel, some references of literature, and Internet.

To analyze this study, the writer uses procedure of qualitative research, which is a form of words or the research that focuses on how individuals and groups view and understand the word, constructs the meaning out of their experiences, and is not numeric. The research method uses in this paper are librarian literary of the novel that corpus is used to select the data in relating to topic of discussion.

The point of the chapter fourth contains describe the emotional expressions, aspects that influence the emotion, and   the effect of the emotional expressions on the main character in the novel, Hester Prynne. The writer takes only one main character namely Hester Prynne, she is a young married woman who has adultery and she has broken the rule of religion, culture, and morality. Starting from her committing adultery with a young clergyman, Arthur Dimmesdale, until she gave birth, the conflicts that produced the emotions and the tortures started.

Referring to the result of this study, the writer draws conclusion either that Hester Prynne’s emotions are produced by some conflicts or the emotional expressions have variety of effects on Hester Prynne. In addition, the writer suggest to the reader or the further researchers to learn more about literature, so they are able to analyze the extrinsic elements that related to human life, creatively.






1.1  Background  of Study

We have been quite familiar works of arts in our daily life. They can be painting, architecture, music or literature. Each of them has its own genre. In literature, for instance; it has drama, poetry, and prose which popular with its novel. Literature consist human implementation and expression that describe the human life with their whole aspect of life. In other words, literature represents human imaginations, feelings, thoughts, and ideas that actualized in fictions and non-fictions that mostly adapted from real histories and human experiences. Moody states that literature springs from our inborn love of telling a story, in arranging words in pleasing patterns, of expressing in words some special aspect of our human experience. (In Miarni Agustini 2001:01)

Discussing about literature, of course we do not only discus the literature description, but also we need to know about the development and existence of the literature self. In Indonesia, literature develops and exists especially in prose part, novel. At least appearing some new novelists, as like; Andrea Hirata with his novel “Laskar Pelangi” which got label best seller book, and Habiburrahman El-Shirazi proved that this literary work has high existence in Indoneia. According to Arif Rifqi, Mohammad (2007:02), the existence of the novel is significant than science book. That caused by the getter attention of the novel self and the enthusiasm of the novel reader.

In other side, as a literary work, novel being a favorite one by people in Indonesia because novel presents the imagination that explode the disappear fact inside the text.  A beautify of the novel also present the truth about human life that combined with esthetic. Next , by reading the novel, human may acquire a great deal of knowledge and experience including values of life, such as humility, wisdom and truth that presented by the novelist.

Somehow, people to have more insight of the story in a novel, some of them still find some difficulties. They just read and read the novel but never understand what the point inside the story and the author wants to. So, for understanding the novel, the reader not only concern to the intrinsic aspects of the novel itself, such as; Plot, character and characterization, theme, setting  and message but also the reader has to focus on the extrinsic aspect or psychological aspect as like; the emotional expression. In other word, this approach attempts to work on literature through the analysis of the character based on the light of modern psychological knowledge and uses modern theories of elucidating and interpreting the work.

As we know, the emotional expression is a human reaction shown while he or she had the physic or mental experiences, generally. In the novel, emotional expression can be identified through the action, speech, and thought of the character. Even though it is not the element part of the novel but it is important in analyzing the novel because trough understanding the emotional expression a reader will know about human problems probably increase the human emotion, and the human reactions in responding the problem or conflict that is showed by the character in the novel. Thus, that is relevant with the purpose of the novel is not only to be written or read as a literary work, but also it is presented to be good advice for the reader trough the story, event, action of character, etc.

The two approaches (intrinsic and extrinsic) are same important. The intrinsic approach provides the reader with a better understanding of what the author wants to convey his or her novel whereas the extrinsic one can broaden the reader’s knowledge by exploring and relating with the aspects outside the novel.

In studying the psychology aspects of the novel, the writer has picked out a novel, which written by Nathaniel Hawthorne, Scarlet Letter. Because in this novel, the author presented the exiting story about human life in puritan era which could bring the reader’s  emotion, enthusiasm, imagination and feeling and explained by using simple words and clearly. Therefore, the reader feels that he/she observes the scene and the novel’s characters directly. In addition, in this novel the writer finds the signals of human emotional problems and reactions in actualizing her/his emotion through speech, action, thought, and appearance as well.

In this study, the writer conducts to analyze the one of the main characters in the Scarlet Letter, Hester Prynne. The investigation is focused only on emotional expressions that are experienced by Hester Prynne. Hester Prynne’s emotional problems are started when she made affair with a man, Arthur Dimmesdale, until given birth after committing adultery and struggles to create a new life of repentance and dignity.

By analyzing the emotional expression of Hester Prynne, the writer would like to know the human’s characteristics and behaviors and would like to understand the relevant factors that possible to increase the human emotions.


1.2  Problems of the Study

Considering to the background of the study above, the writer formulates some statement of problems, as follows:

  1.     What the Hester Prynne’s emotional expressions found in the novel “The Scarlet Letter”?
  2. What are the aspects influence the Hester Prynne’s emotion in the novel “The Scarlet Letter”?
  3. What are the effects of emotional expression for Hester Prynne in novel “The Scarlet Letter”?

1.3  Objectives of the Study

Based on to the problems of the study, the writer determines the objectives are:

  1. To know the Hester Prynne’s emotional expressions found in the novel “The Scarlet Letter”.
  2. To find out the aspects influence in the Hester Prynne’s emotion in. the novel “The Scarlet Letter”.
  3. To describe the emotional expression effects for Hester Prynne in the novel “The Scarlet Letter”.


1.4    Scope and Limitation of the Study

In supporting the study become an authentic analysis, the writer either determines the novel  The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne as the object of the study, or limits to analyze the aspects indicate emotional problems of Hester Prynne that increase her emotional expressions including her speech, action, thought, and appearance as well.



1.5 Significance of the Study

Studying psychology automatically brought us learn the attitude and behavior of human being. Simply, a psychological experience even it is adapted from the point of a literary work, novel; for example. In relation to this, the writer hopes that it becomes a mental therapy, personally, and would be an important part of personal solution for human beings either interacting with social community or solving their problems, majority.

Another significant point of the study, the writer hopes this psychology analysis will be a new inspiration for the next researchers who do research on one of literature genres, especially the novel.


1.6. Definition of the key terms

To make the study clear to the readers and to avoid confusion in understanding the study, the writer would like to present several definitions of key terms, as follows:

  1. Hester Prynne is one of the main characters in a novel The Scarlet Letter.

2. Emotion is affective experiences that accompany generalized inner adjustment and mental and psychological stirred up states in the individual, and that shows itself in his avert behavior. (Crow and crow 2006:105)

3.  Nathaniel Hawthorne is the author of The Scarlet Letter.

4.  Scarlet Letter is a novel’s name written by Nathaniel Hawthorne.











Dr. D. Gunarsa, Singgih. 1981. Psikologi Perkembangan. Jakarta: BPK Gunung Mulia.

Dra. Fatimah, Enung. MM. 2006. Psikologi Perkembangan. Bandung: CV Pustaka Setia.

Honrby, As. 2005. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford             University Press.

Kenney, William. 1966. How to Analyze Fiction. New York: Monarch Press,      division of Simon & Schuster, Inc.

Mac Milan. 1966. Appreciating Literature. New York: Mac Milan publishing company

Moloeng, J. Lexy. 1989. Qualitative Research Methodology.  Bandung: Rodsakarya.

Soeryobroto, Soemardi. 1976. Psikologi Kepribadian. Yogjakarta: Rake Press (download on January 12, 2010, 01:04) on December 22 of 2009, 02:30). (accessed, 14 January 2010, 03:23)

Www. (accessed, 10 January 2010, 23:10) (download on January 11 of 2010, 3:55),personality (download on 3rd of January 2010, 3:50),biography (download on January 11 2010: 02:00)



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