Finaty Ahsanah, 2008. Comparing English Levels of Public Vs Private Junior High School graduates of the tenth grade at SMAN 1 – Paciran. Skripsi, Program study: Bahasa Inggris, Universitas PGRI Ronggolawe Tuban,
Key Word: Public school, Private school, Language English Competent.
This study is examines the English levels of private Vs government junior high school graduates of the tenth grade at SMA N 1 Paciran, as we know there are a lot of people assume that students of government school are more competent than students of private school due to this reason the writer would like to know, are the people assumption is right?. The research does in the tenth grade of SMA N 1 Paciran by giving them test and questioners. The participant consists of 97 student’s first grade (divide into three classes). They have a test and should answer 25 multiple choice questions individually. And the fact is the statements of many people are right that students of government school more competent in English language than students of private school.
1.1 Background of the study
Language is one of the most importance things for human being to communicate with each others. By using language human being are able to share our feelings to other human, for especially English language. English language is the international language and this is world of globalization. English language is a common language and is spoken in many countries. It is considered as universal language. Most of the universities worldwide include English as one of their major subject.
According to Raghu Sundaram that “English is the only language that any one can understand. So to say, it has become as an ideal language for expressing our feelings”.
Based on this statement that English language is very important for living, there are many schools who give students English major weather at private or public school, in every school there is English major that they will give to the students.
Many people assume that students of public school are more competent in than students of private school, especially in English levels. There are a lot of assumptions that public school is better than private school. This assumption has been there since long time ago and we can not just break this assumption.
Due to this problem the writer would like to know whether the students of public school is better than students of private school in English levels, the writer also want to prove the assumption. So the writer interest to prove the ability of English of the public school’s students and private school’s students by the title “COMPARING ENGLISH LEVELS OF PUBLIC Vs PRIVATE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES OF THE 10th GRADE AT SMAN 1 PACIRAN”.
1.2 Statement of The Problem
Based on the background of the study discussed previously, there is a problem that will be a study is follow:
- Is the students 10th grade of public school better in English levels than students of private school at SMAN 1 Paciran?
1.3 Objective of The Study
The objective of the study is the writer wants to know the English levels of the public school students and private school students of the 10th grade at SMAN 1 Paciran.
1.4 Significance of The Study
Through the result of this study, the writer wants to know the significance ability or English level of public school’s students and private school’s students. The writer hope this study can be reference for many teacher, parents, and everyone who wants to know the English levels of public school Vs private school. Finally the writer hopes that the readers will realize that every student have same English levels weather they are graduate from public school or graduate from private school.
1.5 Scope and Limitation
The scope of this study is the English levels of public Vs private junior high school graduates of the 10th grade at SMAN 1 Paciran, focused on that study only.
1.6 Definition of Key Term
There are several terms, which are significance for this study. Therefore, the writer will give some definition about these terms to avoid misunderstanding.
- Language is a system for encoding information (2011:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/language).
- English language is an Indo-European language belonging to the West Germanic branch; the official language of Britain and the United States and most of the commonwealth countries.(2011: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/English+language
- Student is used for anyone who is learning (2011:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/student).
- In the United States, Australia, and many other countries, public school is a school that is supported financially by the government and usually provides free education. (2011:http://dictionary.reverso.net/english-cobuild/public%20school).
- Private school is a school supported by a private organization or private individuals rather than by the government.(2011: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O999-privateschool.html).
1.7 Organization of The Study
This skripsi will be divided into five chapters. Chapter one contains the introduction, such as the background of the problem, statement of the problem, objective of the study, significance of the study, scope and limitation, definition of the key terms, and organization of the study. Chapter two contains review of the related literature and chapter three discusses the methodology. Then, chapter four contains analysis and findings. Then, chapter five will conclude the content of the paper.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
In this chapter is presented both reviews of related literature and these reviews are important as a guide to answer the problem as stated in the statement of the problem.
- A. Definition of a Public School
The California Department of Education further defines a public school as a kindergarten through grade twelve and/or adult educational institution that:
- Is supported with public funds;
- Is authorized by action of and operated under the oversight of a publicly constituted local or state educational agency;
- Provides educational services to all students who are enrolled;
- Has an appropriately credentialed teacher (or teachers) who provides instruction;
- Has at least one appropriately credentialed administrator, usually a principal, who is responsible for all aspects of school administration including supervision and evaluation of staff, fiscal responsibility, student discipline and safety, supervision and evaluation of curriculum, and assessment of academic achievement and school accountability;
- Administers California statewide assessments to its students at the required grade levels;
- Has an administrator, usually a principal, with access to and responsibility for maintaining official student records for all enrolled students;
- Except for charters, implements a curriculum that fully meets state requirements as specified in the California Education Code relating to required courses of study;
- Is non-sectarian;
- Except for charters, the entity’s budget structure is consistent with the budget structure of schools operated by the authorizing agency; and
- Based in one or more buildings that are “Field Act” compliant, unless exempt.
B. Definition of Private School
Private school or An independent school is a school that is independent in its finances and governance; it is not dependent upon national or local government for financing its operations nor reliant on taxpayer contributions, and is instead funded by a combination of tuition charges, gifts, and in some cases the investment yield of an endowment. It is governed by a board of directors that is elected by an independent means and a system of governance that ensures its independent operation. It may receive government funds. However, its board must be independent. The terms independent school and private school are often synonyms in popular usage outside the United Kingdom. Independent schools may have a religious affiliation, but the more precise usage of the term excludes parochial and other schools if there is a financial dependence upon, or governance subordinate to, outside organizations. These definitions generally apply equally to primary education, secondary education, and tertiary education institutions.
- C. English Language Competence
There are many ways to know the English competent of the students, through some test teacher will know the students English level, Such as: listening test, speaking test, writing test, grammar test, and reading test. In this study are use grammar and reading test.
- Grammar definition
Grammar is the set of structural rules that govern the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language. The term refers also to the study of such rules, and this field includes morphology, syntax, and phonology, often complemented by phonetics, semantics, and pragmatics. Linguists do not normally use the term to refer to orthographical rules, although usage books and style guides that call themselves grammars may also refer to spelling and punctuation.
- Reading definition
For all students, developing skills in reading English begins with a solid under-standing of the relationships between English sounds and letters—the relationships between the spoken and written language. For the English learner those concepts are first developed through the recognition and production of English sounds. Students need to learn first those sounds that exist and then those that do not exist in their first language. Students then are taught to transfer this knowledge to the printed language. As students develop knowledge of the correspondence between sounds and printed symbols, they also develop skills to deal with English morphemes (e.g., prefixes, suffixes, root words). Those word-analysis skills are some of the building blocks students need to develop fluency in English and literacy skills.
In this chapter presented the method used in conducting this research. Realized that this method has an important role whether this research will be successful or unsuccessful. This chapter also explains the strategy followed in gathering and analyzing the data.
- Research Design
The research design of this study is qualitative approaches. The qualitative research is the research that researcher observes person or events in their natural setting. Its major purpose is to understand the influences of the particular context on the events. This methodology includes case studies and other naturalistic approaches.
According to Jack R. Fraenkel, there are some general characteristics in qualitative research (Fraenkel, 1993:380)
- The natural setting is the direct source of data and the researcher in the key instrument in qualitative research
- Qualitative data are collected in the form of words or pictures rather than numbers.
- Qualitative researchers are concerned with process as well as product.
- Qualitative researchers tend to analyze their data inductively.
- How people make sense out of their lives is a major concern to qualitative researchers.
Not all qualitative studies will necessarily display of these characteristics with equal strength. Nevertheless, taken together, they give a good overall picture of what is involved in this type of research.
- The Source of Data
The source of the data of this study is a students 10th grade in English classroom situation. The name of the school is SMAN 1 Paciran. The data of this study is the English levels of he students. In this case the writer only observes 3 classes of 6 class of the 10th grade at SMAN 1 Paciran. There is a reason, because the students randomly put into 3 classes and consist of 97 students. These participants are more than enough for this research.
- Steps of Data Collection
The steps in qualitative research begin when the researcher identifies the phenomenon is wished to study, and will end when the researcher draws whatever final conclusions is wished to make (Fraenkel, 1993:381).
Based on the qualitative research methodology, the writer observes with steps of data collection. There are several steps can be identified after finding the school for observation.
- The instrument of this study is the students. The writer observed the students activity in the English classroom.
- Before doing observation, the writer made a good relation with the students.
- After introducing process, the writer did the reading comprehension test.
- After doing the test, the writer gave the questioners to the students.
- The data was being collected from both test and questioners.
- Data Analysis
The writer transcribes the data based on the following chronological order.
- First, the writer analyzed the English levels of the students by using some test and questioners.
- Second, the writer analyzed the data based on the analyzing the English levels.
- Third, analyzing the data, the writer classified the data into two part, public school’s data and private school’s data.
- The last step of the data analysis was concluding the data analysis.
Fraenkel, JackR. 1993. How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education United States: McGraw-Hill, Inc.
Google. 2011. The Importance of English Language. Taken from Google: http://ezinearticles.com/?The-Importance-Of-The-English-Language on June 28th 2011.
Google. 2011. Public School. Taken from Google: http://www.cde.ca.gov/ds/si/ds/dosinfo.asp On June 28th 2011.
Google. 2011. Private School. Taken from Google: http://www.answer.com/topic/private-school on June 28th 2011.
Wikipedia. 2011. What is students? Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/student on June 28th 2011.
Wikipedia. 2011. What is language? Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/language on June 28th 2011.
Wikipedia. 2011. Independent School Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/independent-school on June 28th 2011.