1.1 Background of the study
Language is part of people’s life which is used as a means of communication to make a relationship with other people in society. So that, it is very important for people in the society to know how to use language appropriately to make the communication go smoothly’ people should know how to speak to other to makes more communicative.
English as a foreign language plays an important role in our country. It becomes international language in the globalization era. This language becomes more important as it gears the communication among people, culture and their technological development.
In the line with the rapid development of science and technology now days English is unavoidable. Therefore, English has to be mastered if Indonesian want this country to be develop one. It is primarily due to the fast that rapid development of science and technology has been dominated by western countries in which English is widely used.
To prepare the nation which is aware of English and understand science ang technology, the minister of education and culture has decided to consider English as we grow up unless we are abnormal. Because of this common ability, we tend to take the preciousness of the language very much for granted.
English as a foreign language taught in Indonesia from elementary school to university level. In elementary school, English is taught as compulsory local content and given automatically to primary status among the other foreign language, vocabulary, one of the important aspects of language will make the students easy to communicate to each other and master the aspects of language, Mujiono (1993) state :
Vocabulary in English as a foreign is taught in school for the purpose of providing the students language skill, there are listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Some general statements say that the techniques of teaching reading comprehension and other (listening, speaking, and writing, are also focused on vocabulary).
In learning a foreign language students should analyze what they have to do, when they received the language assignments. They must be led to understand assignment connected with their habit of using their own language to enrich their vocabulary. Gairns and Redman (1992) state :
In organizing school learning, we have to select vocabulary carefully to ensure that high priority items are included, and provide varied opportunities for practice available to the “street learner”.
To gain the the instructional objectives in teaching learning process, a teacher has responsibility for the students to increase the achievement in developing skills,. However, after learning English for sixth year secondary level, is was discovered that high school graduate only master vocabulary consisted of 1000 – 2000 words ( Norweni in Herlinawati, 1998). Even English department students who are prepared then selected to be English teacher for junior high school also have some problems. She said that is is widely known that after learning English at least six year, Indonesian students can not understand English easily, as the number of vocabulary to be mastered, Lado (1969) mentioned the following :
At present it is possible to guess that a speaking vocabulary of 2000 words are in adequate minimum number for the purpose of basic communication, and for reading a vocabulary 7000 words are a clear minimum needs, vocabulary for writing and listening should be better set 3000 to 4000 words.
Different level of the students have different imitation in mastering vocabulary and different duration of time presentation. According to Gairns and Redman (1992), “ low level students would achieve a productive vocabulary of approximately 1000 items over 125 hours of study”.
Realizing the fact that learning English of foreign language especially English vocabulary materials, Homby (1995) states “ total number of word know of person”.
This study mainly concerns with the techniques of teacher English vocabulary for elementary school level. Moreover, the role of teacher’s competence of mastering various techniques is very important to make the students to be able to do or achieve the aim of the instructional program or mastering vocabulary. Ur (1996) state “ It is better to teach vocabulary in separated, spaced session than to teach it all at once”. According to Gairns and Redman (1992), “ To understand the words fully, therefore, a students must know not only what it refers to but also where the boundaries are that separate it from words of related meaning”.
We may say that vocabulary is one of the important elements of language and it should be taught effectively and purposefully. To do this effectively, the teacher must have both theoretical and knowledge about subject matter. Ryan and Copper (1984 : 302) state “ to do this effectively, the teacher must have both theoretical, knowledge about learning and human behavior and knowledge about subject matter to be taught”.
The writer believes that English is really important for the beginner and the interaction of the teachers and learners are needed in teaching learning process.
In this “ skripsi” the writer tries to describes the techniques of teaching English vocabulary to the fifth year student at SDIT AL-USWAH Tuban.
1.2 Statements of the problem
The writer intends to investigate the following matters :
1.2.1 What kind of techniques are used by the teacher in teaching English vocabulary?
1.2.2 How does the teacher implement the techniques in teaching vocabulary?
1.3 Purpose of the study
Based on the statements above, the purpose of the study are :
1.3.1 To describe the kind of techniques used by the teacher in teaching English vocabulary.
1.3.2 To describe the implementation of those techniques in class.
1.4 Significance of the study
The writer hopes the result of the study will give positive for the development English teachers and also for the pupils.
1.4.1 For the teachers
It will be able to give valuable information to serve a feedback which contributes to improve their techniques in teaching vocabulary and improve their knowledge about vocabulary items.
1.4.2 For the students
It will know well the teaching and learning has fulfilled the need of the pupil and achieve the goal of the learning and teaching English.
1.5 Limitations of the study
This study that is carried out at SDIT AL-USWAH Tuban focus on aspect of English language and also the techniques. Because of limited time and energy, the writer limit the problems as follows :
1.5.1 The kind of techniques in teaching English vocabulary at SDIT AL-USWAH Tuban.
1.5.2 The implementation of those techniques on the fifth year students at SDIT AL-USWAH.
1.6 Definition of key terms.
To avoid misunderstanding in the interpretation of words used in this research, the writer give the definition of the terms used in this research. The terms are used as follows :
||:||Study of sometimes by examining its parts or statement of the result of this ( Learner’s Pocket Dictionary, 1995).|
||:||Is the ways presenting the materials of vocabulary to the students that take places in the classroom.|
||:||To carry out or put into practice. ( Oxford Learner’s Pocket Dictionary, 1995:2008)|
||:||The process of giving interaction, knowledge and skill to somebody ( Oxford Learner’s Pocket Dictionary New Edition, 1992:425 ).|
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Vocabulary Definition
Many writers believe that learning English as a foreign language, the learning should first of all, master the sound system, the basic structural patterns, and limited number of vocabulary items of the target language. Problem faced by the students in learning English come from the internal factor in the language.
Many experts define the terms of vocabulary in many various ways. All of the definition have the same idea that is amount of words used for communications in a certain language.” Vocabulary is all the words known to particular person, the special set of words used in particular kinds of word. A list of word usually in alphabetical order with explanations of their meaning, les complete than a dictionary”. ( Longman P: 1229).
Harris define that vocabulary is range of words known to, or used by a person in trade, profession, etc, or total number of word which ( with rules for combining them) make up a language (1980;959).
From definition above, it can be included that vocabulary is an activity to use an oral or written language. It can be practiced with pattern drill and expressing ideas, thought, oral or written communication. So, vocabulary in valves activity participation or the part of studies.
2.2 Vocabulary as Words and Their Meaning.
Finoccharo ( 1980:60) state “ words become meaningful only when studied and considered in contexts, that is with all the other words sorroud them and helping to give them their meaning”.
In this item, the write tries to describe about the words and their meaning focusing on two items.
2.2.1 Polisemy, Homonym.
According to Grains and Redman (1992) :
- Polisemy : we use them to describe a single word from with the several different but closely related meaning. In English for example, we can talk about the ‘head’ of a person, the ‘ head’ of a pin, or the ‘head’ of organization.
- Homonym : when a single word has several different meanings which is not closely related, we use the term homonym. Example : a file/fail may be used for keeping papers in, or may be a toll for cutting, or something hard substances. According to Ur (1996), homonym is the item that serves as specific example of a general concept (dog, lion, mouse, are homonym of an animal).
2.2.2 Synonym, Antonym.
a. Synonym : is a word that has the same meaning as another word, for example : . sad synonym of in happy ( Blancard and Root, 2005: 88).
b. Antonym : is the word with opposite meaning, like old and new (Thornbury, 2002: 9).
2.3 Word Building.
Gains and Redman (1992) sate that there are three form of word building that care characteristic of English.
Affixation is the process of adding prefixes and suffixes to the base item, in this way, item can be modified in meaning and/or chinging from ne part of speech to another. To base form “man” for instance, we can add prefixes in the following way : man
Man + ly = manly
Un + man + ly = unmanly
Compounding is the formation word from two or separate word can stand independently in other circumstances. There are three different types of compound. Adjective-compound (e.g. hard-working, timeconsuming), verb-compound ( e.g. to sight-see), and noun compound.
Conversion is the process which an item may be used in different part of speech.
e.g. We’ve just had already swam (noun).
I cann’t swim very well.
2.4 Type of Vocabulary.
Fachrurrozy (1993) devided English vocabulary into two types :
- Function words are the words which have little or no lexical meaning but serve chiefly to indicate grammatical relationships.
– Articles : a, an, the.
– Preposition : at, by, like, of.
– Remonstrative : this, that, those, these.
– Conjunctions : and, but, or, not only.
– Pronouns : I, we, his, them.
- 2. Content words.
Content words are the words which carry lexical meaning in their selves.
– Noun : book, water, table.
– Verb : go, walk, study.
– Adjective : warm, diligent, beautiful.
– Adverb : fast, happy, differently.
2.5 Kinds of Vocabulary.
There are two kinds of vocabulary : first, active vocabulary means vocabulary that often used by of person to express his idea and sense. Second, passive vocabulary that is seldom used.
Gairns and Redman (1992) divided vocabulary into two kinds. Namely respective vocabulary and productive vocabulary. Respective vocabulary means language items, which, can only recognized and comprehended in the context of reading and listening materials. Productive vocabulary is language item, which the learner can recall and use appropriately in speech and writing (these tem are often called passive and active vocabulary).
From that opinion shown that vocabularies almost the same with active and passive vocabulary.
2.6 The Techniques of Teaching Vocabulary.
About the techniques of teaching vocabulary, Droff (1987) proposes the following procedure :
- Say the word clearly and write in on the board.
- Get the class repeat the word in chorus.
- Translate the word into the students own language.
- Ask the students to translate the word.
- Give example to show how the word is used.
- Ask question using new word.
THE RESEACH OF THE TECHNIQUE AND THE IMPLEMENTATION IN TEACHING VOCABULARY TO THE FIFTH YEAR STUDENTS OF SDIT AL – USWAH TUBAN
NPM : 1106080038
FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF PGRI RONGGOLAWE TUBAN