Asih Widya.A. 2011. An Analysis of Jonathan’s Struggle as the Main Character in Bram Stoker’s Novel “ Dracula”.
Skripsi, English Department, Unirow Tuban, Advisor : Dr. Tri Budi Susatyo
Literary is simply another way we can experience the world us through out imagination. Literature is this broadest sense maybe classified into two. First, literature of knowledge of informative literature. Its function is to present information, to teach and to offer knowledge. The examples are history books, scientific articles, dictionary, etc. secondly, literature of power or imaginative literature. Its function is to entertain, to move, to arouse thought and feelings. The examples are novels, short stories, poems, plays ,etc.
A novel is a part of literary works that has length form is able to store all aspects of life that is written in prose.
The purpose of the study is to find out the answer of statement problems: what Jonathan’s Struggle is, what the cause of Jonathan’s Struggle success is, and finally how the end of Jonathan’s Struggle is.
The study uses descriptive qualitative research design. It means that does not use numbers or calculation to process the data but put on the quotation taken from the novel and describes them in order to give clear explanation and support her assumption.
The result of the research can be concluded as follows: first, what Jonathan’s Struggle is. Jonathan’s Struggle is to fight and hunt the strongest vampire, Count Dracula. Secondly, the cause of Jonathan’s Struggle success is. Jonathan is helped by their two friends, Arthur and Professor Van Helsing in fighting Dracula. Finally, at the end of his struggle. Jonathan can find Dracula who not in moving situation in his box with his friends helping. So, he can kill Dracula. In the end, Dracula was died. And they and many people life in fearless.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
As social beings, we like telling people about things that happen to us and we like to hear of things that happen to the other people. From description above, we can say that literature is simply another way we can experience the world us through out imagination. So for application of it, Braham Little (1996) divides literary works into four kinds., drama, novel, poetry and short story. The writer will discuss novel “ DRACULA” written by Bram Stoker. The writer discuss Jonathan’s struggle as a main character of novel. But before that, it is necessary to know a little about novel. Novel is a part of literary works that has length form is able to store all aspect of life that is written in prose.
At last, the writer is interested in analyzing the main character of Bram Stoker’s novel “ Dracula” because it has not been discussed yet. When the writer was introduced to literature, she began to think that within literature lies a great lesson to learn, studying the major course, that is linguistic learn and language skills. The writer wants to discuss Jonathan’s struggle as a main character of novel with the hope that she may get some experience of life and know how much important the struggle is. So in this point, she choose the title an Analysis of Jonathan’s Struggle as a Main Character in Bram Stoker’s “Dracula” as the topic of this discussion.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Nowadays, we often meet some problems of human life. The problems between one person and another’s difference because it is influenced by background of life. The writer explains the problem that is related with Jonathan’s struggle. Before the writer write the title an Analysis of Jonathan’s Struggle as a Main Character in Bram Stoker’s “Dracula”, she presents the following questions.
- what is characterization of the main character in the novel?
- what is Jonathan’s struggle?
- what is the cause Jonathan’s struggle success?
- how is the end of Jonathan’s struggle?
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
Based of the problems above, the objectives of the study are as follows:
- the writer wants to know the characterization of the main character in the novel.
- the writer wants to know Jonathan’s struggle
- the writer wants to find the cause Jonathan’s struggle success.
- the writer wants to find the end of Jonathan’s struggle.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
By discussing this topic, the writer wants to have great knowledge of literature and know more experience of life through finding Jonathan’s struggle as a main character. The readers will be able to add their knowledge, to get amusement, and also know how much important the struggle in the life. So that, it enables them to deepen the awareness of life.
1.5 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study focuses on the discussion onto Jonathan’s struggle as a main character through the analysis of all subject matter but it does not mean that the other elements are not involved in this discussion. Therefore, the writer choose the title an Analysis of Jonathan’s Struggle as a Main Character in Bram Stoker’s “Dracula” to be analyzed.
1.6 DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS
Before discussing about the skripsi further, it is necessary for the writer to define key term related with the title of the skripsi
1.6.1 Analysis is The separation of a substance into its constituent elements, usually by chemical means, for the study and identification of each component. ( The American Heritage)
1.6.2 Characterization is the depicting of clear image of a person ( William Kenney. 1966:94)
1.6.3 Main character is the character who play the most important role in the play ( Jacob Sumardjo and Saini KM.1988:144)
1.6.4 Struggle is To strive, or to make efforts, with a twisting, or with contortions of the body. (Abraham Lincoln)
1.6.5 Dracula is a novel written by Bram Stoker
1.7 RESEARCH METHOD
According to A.S. Hornby is this book “ the Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English, methodology is divided from the word “method” meaning the way of doing something. And logos/logic is research. So, Methodology is the way of doing research done by the researcher (1974:533).
1.7.1 Research Design
The writer tries to do through library research. It belongs to qualitative research. It means that it is the analysis of text of literary work without using number and calculation to process the data.
1.7.2 Source of Data and Research Data
Source of Data in this study is a novel “Dracula’. The writer’s research data is Jonathan’s Struggle as a main character found in “Dracula” written by Bram Stoker.
1.7.3 Procedure of Collecting and Analyzing Data
After the novel and data were collected, the writer analyzes them through the way of the content analysis is a procedure for categorization of data, for the purpose of classification and referring to the writer problems. The process of collecting and analyzing data by the writer can be described as follow: after then she identifies the data by giving symbol for each problem which is found in the novel. The writer also groups the data based on the problem. In the last, she describes the data and summarizes the findings.
2.1 Biography of Bram Stoker ( 1847-1912)
Writer of one of the world’s most famous horror novels, Abraham Stoker was born to the loosely defined socio-cultural group known as the Anglo-Irish. A Protestant Dubliner, he was the son of a civil servant, and he was expected to follow in his father’s footsteps. As a child, Abraham Stoker was a sickly child often on the point of death? by his own account, he never stood upright without aid until he was seven years old. But he grew into a physically robust youth, excelling in athletics during his college years. At Trinity College, he studied mathematics and became president of the Philosophical Society and the Historical Society.
In the years between 1870 and 1877, he was a civil servant at Dublin Castle. He maintained ties to Trinity College, returning there frequently to speak on a wide range of topics for the Philosophical Society. He was deeply interested in the Romantic poets, and during these years he established a correspondence with Walt Whitman. The two men exchanged letters until Whitman’s death. Stoker also became an enthusiastic theatergoer and an ardent admirer and friend of Henry Irving, writing dramatic criticism and glowing reviews of Irving’s work for the local papers. Many have argued that Henry Irving was an important model for the character of Count Dracula, and that the novel was a kind of unconscious revenge against the man to whom Stoker gave so much. During these years, Stoker’s position in the Historical Society at Trinity put him in contact with Dublin’s elite. He became a regular guest of Sir William and Lady Wilde, the parents of Oscar Wilde, and was drawn into Lady Wilde’s literary and artistic circle of friends. He competed with Oscar Wilde for the hand of Florence Balcombe, a beautiful young woman who was the daughter of a lieutenant-colonel. Florence chose Bram, and the two were married in 1878, the same year he left for London and a new job as the business manager of Henry Irving’s Lyceum Theater. That same year, he wrote The Duties of Clerks of Petty Sessions in Ireland, drawn from his experience as a civil servant. Stoker continued to work faithfully and tirelessly for Henry Irving until the actor’s death in 1906.
The many years with Henry Irving were full of hard work and sacrifice, as Stoker frequently put his work before his family. His only child, Noel, was born in 1879. Noel later felt that Stoker’s work for Irving wore out the devoted younger man. There was constant touring and promotional work to be done, throughout the British Isles and as far away as North America. It was during these years that Stoker wrote his greatest novel, Dracula (1897). In 1905, Irving collapsed and died while on tour in Sheffield. Stoker was so profoundly affected by the death of his friend and hero that he suffered a stroke. After Irving’s death, Stoker continued to write fiction and do newspaper work until his own death in 1912.
Bram Stoker wrote numerous novels, short stories, essays, and lectures, but Dracula is by far his most famous work. His other works have not aged well, but the story of Count Dracula continues to sell steadily even to this day. Stoker coined the term “undead,” and his interpretation of vampire folklore has powerfully shaped depictions of the legendary monsters ever since.
2.2 The Synopsis
The story was beginning Jonathan Harker as a lawyer work to find houses in England for rich people. One day, there was a rich people named count Dracula from Transylvania, Eastern Europe wanted to buy an old house near London He invited Jonathan to visit his castle in Transylvania. Jonathan didn’t want to go. But, Mina coax him to go. Last, he went away to count’s castle. The road of castle was terrible. There were howling wolves and the driver of coach who picked up Jonathan as disappeared as arrived in castle. Jonathan met count who was terrible man looked like a cruel man. He spent the night a few days in castle. There were terrible cases in there. As he shaved in front of mirror, count was in behind him. He was so surprised because nobody had not seen in mirror. One day he saw golden dust in the air were changed the three beautiful women. A woman wanted to bite him. But, count was coming and chased them away. Then Jonathan saw count went out y window with black cloaks like the wings of huge birds. And he saw too count lay in the box with opened eyes but didn’t move and white sharp teeth. Suddenly the men brought the boxes away included count to the London.
Mina was invited to Lucy’s house in hythe until Jonathan returned. Because Arthur ( Lucy’s husband ) were in Amsterdam with his old teacher, professor van helsing. One night, Lucy was gone. Mina looked her for. And she saw her in the churchyard gate with someone who has two red eyes and white face. Suddenly, someone was gone. Lucy was getting ill with the marks on the neck. Then, Mina went to budapest to meet Jonathan. She told him about Lucy. Immediately he saw count with a beautiful girl. And he told Mina about count. One day they were married. Then, they have a bad news from Arthur that Lucy was died.
Arthur told Jonathan and Mina about how Lucy’s death. It was very strange and terrible. She didn’t look like Lucy. After a few days, they hear a news that a beautiful girl killed the children. They thought that she was Lucy. Then, Jonathan, Arthur and van helsing went to the vault. But Lucy was gone from the coffin. suddenly they saw Lucy in churchyard. She wasn’t Lucy but a vampire using her body. Then van helsing killed her with a golden cross and hammer the stake down in her heart, l vast cut off her head. Then she was really died.
Jonathan, Arthur and van helsing went to the castle. They wanted to destroy count. But count was gone from his wooden box. Jonathan was worried to his wife, mina. Then, they came back to London. But mina was with count. Mina has marks like Lucy. And van helsing hypnotized mina everyday in order she wasn’t changed to be a vampire.
Professor kept mina in circle of holly break and broke it into a pieces the ground around him. Suddenly, the three vampires called her at night. In order she was changed a vampire like them. But, they couldn’t enter the circle. And they changed back into the mist when the dawn came. In the morning, Jonathan, Arthur and van helsing looked the box for that filled up count. They found it and carried it away from the men. They saw count lay in the box. Then, Jonathan stuck his heart by stake and cut through the vampire’s throat. At the same time, count’s body was a heap of dust. The vampire was dead.
Review of Related Literature
Literature is simply another way the reader can experience the world around them through their imagination, (Jones, 1968:1). The writer divides the large mass of knowledge or info two different group. There is the first, the literature of knowledge or Informative Literature. Secondly, the literature of power or imaginative literature. Jones (1968 : 1) stated that informative literature tells us that the world is round that deals with fact. Explanation and real people life history. Example : articles, magazine dictionaries, etc. And imaginative literature is to inform the authors thought, ideas feeling to the readers thought. Example : short stories, novel, poetry, and drama.
Novel is book length story in proses, whose author tries to create the serve that while we read, we experience actual life. Story of the novel can make the reader in value in the story (Kennedy, 19983 : 180 ).
The main differences between novel and short story are the length, the complexity of plot, character and setting. Besides, the other difference between novel and short story is in focus. A short story focuses one incident in time. A novel has far more range. A novel may have more character than short story. And the number of settings of novel will probably be greater.
Between novel and short story, there are some similarities. Both are prose fiction and deall with truth, problems, conflict and have the same aim that is to entertain and to inform.
3.3 Kinds of novel
Abrams ( 1971 : 113 ) classified types of novel into there separate:
- The sosiological novel, emplasize the ifluence f social and economic conditionon characters and events.
- The historical novel, takes it setting and some of characters and events are fairly elaberaly developed and importame to the central narrative.
- The regional novel, emphasize the setting, speech and customs of a particular locality, not merely as local color, but as important condition affecting the temperament of the characters, and their ways of thinking, feeling, acting.
As stated by Sumardjo and saini ( 1988 : 29-30 ) novel can be divided into three. They are romance, advature, and fantastic novel. Romance novel usually discusses a love that happens between a man and a woman. Adventure novel talks about someone’s experices. And fantastic novel talks about unrealistic and impossible thinks in the life.
This study is discussing are of this kinds, the writer fries to analyze a novel “ Dracula “ written by bram stoker that is included in fantastic novel it tells about vampire who killed people that is about unrealisstic and imposible things in the life.
3.4 The struggle
Accaording to pei and mario in chasanah ( 2003 : 16 ) truggle is strong effort, on series effent, aggainst any adverse agencies or conditions, as in order to maintain one’s exercise ir rto affain someone. Based on definition above, the writer concludes that struggle is hard effert done by someone or group and he or she also sacrifites material, mental moreover his / her life to reach the porpose. In this case struggle is explained based on these twofactors : mental and material struggle. Mental struggle concerns with struggle that is related to one’s feeling or thooght and it is abstract. For example to control her / his emotion material or phsycal struggle concern with struggle that is related to physical contact or material, for example action and things.
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Stoker, Bram.1897. Dracula. Romanian