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A Study of Psychological Conflict Underground by Joseph Conrad As The Main Character In Marlow ‘s Decision.


Yofi , Aninda . 2008, B, A Study of Psychological Conflict Underground by Joseph Conrad As The Main Character In Marlow ‘s Decision.

Key Words                 :Marlow, Heart of Darkness , Pyschological conflict, Joseph Conrad.


 Marlow’s Decision and Message in Joseph Conrad


Literature is the reflection of the whole real things in the world and converse all the activities in all kinds of life with all aspects in it .And it is simply broadest sense literature includes all written materials such as history book , philosophical works , scientific articles , dictionaries , magazines , school text books , novels , short stories , poems , play , and travel brochures .

Novel is a long story written in prose which illustrated figures representative motion and act of the real life in form a complicated condition . Someone will gets a lost of information about the life by reading a novel . ‘Joseph Conrad ‘   Novel “Heart of Darkness & The secret Sharer “  will be analyzed by the writer . Smartness and messsages of this Novel was analyzed through Marlow as the main character .

Descriptive research is used in this study . An objective approaches used to gain the purpose of the study . Population is the whole events which are presented  by Joseph Conrad in the novel . While the data of this study are participants and dialogues which indicate possible information dealing with this problem .

Through Marlow as the main character, Joseph Conrad present that Marlow is a Young man who decides that it would be exiting to travel into Africa hunting ivory and does so by taking the place of a dead steamboat captain.













1.1  Background of The Study


As social being, indeed literature is extremely familiar to human being, it is existence has an aim at completing one’s pleasure and one’s knowledge as well, So reading literature sometime is regarded  as an important activity.

Literature is very important for the student especially of English human knowledge . Literature is one of compulsory subjects , which has to be taken by all English student . Reading   literature work give something more than enjoyment and pleasure .There are many kinds of definition of literature , Graham little  ( 1966 : 2 ) in this approaches said that literature says something work saying and something well said . Literary work divides into  four kinds: drama , novel , poetry , and short story .Novel is one of the most interesting and popular genre of literature . Novel is a pert of interesting work that has length form . It is can store all of aspects of life .

A novel use the some elements a short story , they are plot, characterization , situation  and theme. From these four elements the writer would like to analyze Psychological Conflicts Underground Marlow by Joseph Conrad .

Heart of Darkness & The Secret Sharer , which was written has focused on the study psychological conflict underground Marlow .

The story tells of a powerful European . Kurtz, Who reverts to awful savagery in an isolated native trading post .


1.2  The Reason of Choosing The Topic


1st              : Psychological conflict are  one of the interesting part in this story .

2nd                        : To know more details about this story especially psychological conflict .



1.3  Statement of The Problem


Conflict may happen to everyone , either male  or female , young  or  old . It happens  to human being in daily life at the reflection of their genuine characters. One can to avoid any conflicts because as social beings, one must make contact with on other in his or her community . Furthermore ,conflict are avoidable since the society itself consist of various persons having different personality .

As  the central of interest of the story as stated in the novel “Heart of Darkness & The Secret Sharer,   tells of a powerful European . Kurtz, Who reverts to awful savagery in an isolated native trading post .

From the  several reson above , the writer in writing  “ Skripsi  “ will be interested to analyze


1 . What is the psychological conflict ?

2. Does Marlow succeed on his decision ?



1.4  Purpose of The Study


Meanwhile the main purpose of this “ Skripsi ” is to find out


1        . The psychological conflict  of Marlow.

2        . Whether Marlow succeed in reaching her goal or not ?


1.5  The scope of Limitation


The writer wants to limit and emphasize that the discussion of this skripsi in chiefly on the main character Marlow it will be focused only on the psychological conflict underground Marlow by Josep Conrad .


Definition of The Key Terms


  1. Marlow                  : The main character of this story.
  2. Psychological confilct        : Is when you want to do something but your own feelings      toward that certain things that you want to do get the in the way .( au.answer.
  3. Heart of Darkness& The secret Sharer : Title of Novel
  4. Joseph Conrad       : The Author of the  Novel.


1.6  Method of The Study


The data  and the information supporting this  “Skripsi “are taken from great member of sources and references .Descriptive research is used in this study . An objective approaches used to gain the purpose of the study . Population is the whole events which are presented  by Joseph Conrad in the novel . While the data of this study are participants and dialogues which indicate possible information dealing with this problem.



1.7  The Organization of  The Study


Chapter 1   :Deals the introduction

Chapter 2   : Author’s Biography and Synopsis of The Novel .

Chapter 3   : Review of Related Literature.

Chapter 4   : The Writer Analyze According to  The Problem of The Study.

Chapter 5   : Conclusion .





























2.1 The Biography of  Joseph Conrad

Joseph Conrad ( born Jozef Toodor Konrad Korzenioowski 3 December 1857-3 August 1924 ) was a Polish –born English novelist.

Conrad is regarded as one of the greatest novelist in English ,though he did not speak the language fluently until he was in twenties ( and then always with a marked Polish accent ).He wrote stories and novels predominantly with a nautical or seaboard setting that depict trials of the human spirit by demands of duty and honor .

Conrad was a master prose stylist who  brought a distinctly non – English tragic sensibility into English literature .While some of his works have a strain of romanticism ,he is viewed as a precursor of modernist literature .His narrative style and anti- heroic characters have influenced many authors .

Films have been adapted from or inspired by Conrad ‘s Victory ,Lord Jim , The secret Agent , An Outcast of The Islands, The Rover ,The Shadow  Line , The Duel , Heart of Darkness , Nostromo  , and Almayer’s  Folly. Writing in the heyday of the British Empire , Conrad drew upon his experiences in the French and later The British Merchant Navy to create short stories and novels that reflect aspects of a worldwide empire while also plumbing the depths of the human soul.


2.2 Synopsis of “ Heart of Darkness & The Secret  Sharer

The story opens with an unnamed narrator describing five men , apparently colleagues ,on a boat anchoredon The River Thames and the surrounding as dusk settles in and they await  the turning of the tide .The narrator cites a passenger  known as Charlie Marlow , the only one of the man who “ still followed the sea “ Marlow makes a comment about London having been “one of the dark places on earth “,thus begins the story of Marlow and a job he took as captain of a steamship in Africa.

The Roi des  Belges, the Belgian riverboat Conrad commanded on the upper Congo ,1889 .He begins by ruminating on how Britain’s image among Ancient Roman officials must have been similar to Africa’s image among 19th century British officials .He describes how is “ dear aunt “ used many of her contacts to secure the job for him, calling him an “ emissary of light “.When he arrives at the job , he encounters many men he dislikes as they strike him as untrustworthy. They speak often of a man named Kurtz, who has quite a reputation in many areas of expertise .He is somewhat of a rogue ivory collector , essentially a great musician , a journalist, a skilled painter and s universal genius.

Marlow arrives at the Central Station run by the Manager, an unwholesome conspiratorial character .He finds his steamship has been sunk and suspects the Manager of causing the accident , then spends three months waiting for parts to repair it .There is rumor regarding Kurtz being ill , this makes the delays in repairing the ship all the more costly. Marlow gets the parts and he and the manager set out with a few agents and a crew of cannibals on a long , difficult voyage up the river .

Old Belgian river station on the Congo River , 1889 Marlow and the crew discover a hut with stacked firewood together with a note saying that the wood is for them but that they should approach cautiously. Shortly after the steamer has  taken on the firewood old it is surrounded by a dense fog . When the fog clears , the ship is attacked by an unseen band of natives , who shoot arrows from the safety of the forest , killing one of crew. When they later reach Kurtz’s station , they are met by a guileless Russian trader , the Harlequin , who assures them that everything is fine and informs them that he is the one who left the wood and the note . They find that Kurtz has persuaded the natives to treat him as a god, and led brutal  raids in the surrounding territory in search  of ivory .

Marlow and his crew take the ailing Kurtz aboard their ship and depart . Kurtz is lodged in Marlow’s pilothouse and Marlow finds himself disappointed with Kurtz’s childish schemes for fame and fortune . During this time , Kurtz gives Marlow a collection of papers and a photograph for safekeeping , as both had witnessed the Manager going through Kurtz’s belongings. The photograph is of a beautiful woman whom Marlow assumes is Kurtz ‘s love interest or as Marlow calls her “ his intended “.

One night Marlow happens upon Kurtz, obviously near death .As Marlow come closer with a candle , Kurtz seems to experience a supreme moment of complete knowledge and speaks his last words: “ The horror ! The horror! “ Marlow believes this to be Kurtz’s reflection on the events of his life . Marlow does not inform the Manager or any of the voyagers of Kurtz death , the news is instead broken by the Manager ‘s child – servant.

Marlow later returns to his home city and is confronted by many people  seeking things and ideas of Kurtz. Marlow meets Kurtz’s death , Marlow tells her that his last words were “ your name “, and not “ the horror! The horror!”

The story concludes back on the boat on the Thames , with a description of how the river seemed to lead into the heart of an immense darkness.












In relation to the title of “ SKRIPSI” as study of psychological conflicts underground by Marlow in Heart of Darkness & The secret Sharer” it is very necessary to define the meaning of certain term above they are “ novel” sttudy “ psychological “ ,” conflict “ . This has intention to obtain a clear guide for understanding the content of Skripsi , because the terms basically are the most important thoughts in  coming in this discussion . In defining and also exploring the term . It will use some dictionaries and some expert, opinion in literature as reference . That will be concluded by combining all of the statements as accurately as possible . As much it will be found a unity of clear complete meaning of each term .


3.1             Literature


Is simply another way we can experience the world around us through our imagination , ( Ali Fauzi ,1996 : 2). According to Jacob Sumajo and Saini thier book “ Apresiasi Kesusasteraan “, Literature is expressing human personal which sorts of experience , thinking, feeling, idea , enthusiasm .( 1988 : 2) mentioned two kinds of literature .There are informative literature and imaginative literature .I nformative literature presents or interprets the factual information explanation , or scientific process  as was on political issues .Imaginative literature interprets experience by fictions presentation of persons, ideas , and events.


3.2 The Definition of The Novel


Novel is result of the story of the author imagines , not real events . Novel is on illusion story but it is written according to real life.


3.3 The elements of The Novel


They include plot, character, settings,of view , style snd tone ,form and technique , and theme ( 1966:8-19 William Kenney ) .


      3.3.1  Plot


Is the sequence of events or incidents of which story is composed. The term of plot can be mentioned in the beginning ,in teh middle , and end .


      3.3.2    Character- Characteristic-characterization


Here will be discussed character , characteristic, characterization based on literary theory. Character

Is the person in dramatic or narrative work , endoved with moral and disposition qualifies that are expressed in what they say the dialogue , and what they do, the action ( M.H . Abraham , 1971 : 21 ). There are character namely : major and minor characters. Characteristic


Means a person is behaviour .  Characterization


Is the author’s way in giving  characteristic to the characters. They are 2 term of characterization they are direct and indirect characterization.


3.3.3  Setting


Is the elements  of fiction which reveals to the readers where and when the events happen.


3.3.4 Point of View


Herman J.Waluyo ( 1984 :183-184 ) explains that the part of views is how the author takes a part , directly involves him self in story as first person or  as an observer who stand out of the characters as the characters as third person .

There are 4 kinds of point of view. They are first person point of view, third  person point of view ,dramatic person point of view , omniscient  point of view .( Jones , 1968 : 29 )


3.4                         The Definition of The study


In conclude Indonesia dictionary , ( 1) study , research  & scientific , ( 2) Lesson  ( Bodudu- Zaini 1996 : 1358 ).


3.5             The Definition of The Psychology


C.P Chaplin in (Complete Dictionary Psychology ) describe that “ Psychology as a science is scientific a certain kind knowkledge about attitude people and annual that empty into in the heart that appear in the environment  ( 1995b: 398)


3.6 The Definition of Conflict


As stated before that conflict is the meeting two opposite thesis or elements or characteristic and its result .

In Jones divides three categories of conflict ( 1) the psysical elemental conflict : conflict between man and nature  ( 2) social conflict : conflict of man against another and (3) psychological / internal conflict  ( Jones , 1986 : 30 ) Which psychological Conflict will arise if the character is struggling against himself , against his science , his question , or simply to decide what is going to do .


By              Aninda Yofi Intan S.

NPM          1106080044




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